NATIONAL BUILDING REGULATIONS AND BUILDING STANDARDS ACT

103 OF 1977

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

REGULATIONS

GNR.2074 of 13 September 1985

Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 9 – Review Board Regulations

GNR.2075 of 13 September 1985

Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 16 – Report to the minister

GNR.2076 of 13 September 1985

Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 17 (5) (a) – Servitudes or restrictive conditions over land

Doc No 0400 of 1999

The South African Bureau of Standards Code of Practice for the application of the National Building Regulations

GNR.2378 of 12 October 1990

Regulations in terms of section 17 (1) of the Act      

 

REGULATIONS

GNR.2074 of 13 September 1985:  Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 9 – Review Board Regulations

NOTE:-These regulations were published in Government Notice 2074 of 13 September 1985 in Government Gazette  9927.

I, Kent Diederich Skelton Durr, Deputy Minister of Finance and of Trade and Industry, acting on behalf of the Minister of Trade and Industry, have, in terms of section 20 read with section 9 of the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977), promulgated the regulations set out in the Schedule.

SCHEDULE

1.   In these regulations any word to which a meaning has been assigned in the Act shall bear that meaning and unless the context otherwise indicates—

            (a)            “appellant” means a person who has lodged a notice of appeal to the board in terms of these regulations;

            (b)            “board” means the review board contemplated in section 9 of the Act;

            (c)            “chairman” means a chairman designated by the Minister in terms of section 9 (2) (a) of the Act;

            (d)            “Director-General” means the Director-General of the bureau;

            (e)            “member” means a person appointed by the chairman in terms of section 9 (2) (b) of the Act;

            ( f )            “party” means a party to any appeal to the board;

            (g)            “the Act” means the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977) .

2.   A body referred to in Annexure A to these regulations may nominate not more than six persons whose names may be included in the list compiled for purposes of appointment on the board.

3.   A body referred to in regulation 2 may within a period not exceeding 30 days from the date on which it is invited by notice in writing by the Director-General so to do, submit to him the names of such nominees, and shall in respect of every such nominated person state—

            (a)            his full name, address and occupation;

            (b)            his qualifications and experience; and

            (c)            any other information indicating why such person is considered to be suitable for inclusion in the list.

4.   Every nomination referred to in regulation 3 shall include the nominee’s written consent for his name to be included in the said list.

5.   A list compiled in terms of these regulations shall be valid for a period of three years from the date the Director-General shall have compiled such a list: Provided that if on the date of expiration of such list the board has not disposed of any appeal being dealt with by it on the date of such expiry, the members of the board shall continue to serve on the board until such appeal has been finalised.

6.   The Director-General may in his discretion accept any or all of the names so submitted and he may, if in his opinion any particular branch of the building industry will not adequately be represented, include the names of persons not nominated in terms of this regulation.

7.   The Director-General shall keep such list in his office where it shall be open for inspection at all reasonable times.

8.   The Director-General may in his discretion, from time to time, add to or delete from such list the name of any person, should circumstances so necessitate this.

9.   (1)  Any person desirous of appealing to the board in terms of the Act may—

            (a)            lodge with the Director-General for transmission to the chairman a notice of appeal in writing in which he shall set out the grounds on which such appeal is based; and

            (b)            simultaneously lodge a copy of such notice of appeal with the local authority in question.

(2)  (a)  Any appeal shall be accompanied by such plans, specifications and documents as will enable the board effectively to deal with the appeal and the board may call for and the appellant shall submit any additional information it may require.

(b)  Copies of such plans, specifications and documents shall similarly be delivered to the local authority in question.

(c)  The local authority in question shall furthermore be furnished with a copy of any additional information obtained by the board in accordance with this subsection.

(3)  Any such notice of appeal lodged with the Director-General shall be accompanied by a fee of R100 which amount shall accrue to the council.

(4)  The board shall not be constituted unless the fee referred to in subregulation (3) has been paid.

10.   (1)  Upon receipt of the notification referred to in regulation 9 (1) (b) the local authority shall within 21 days of the date of such notification forward the reasons for its decision to the Director-General and if it should have any comments on any additional information obtained by the board in terms of regulation 9 (2) (a), such comments shall be forwarded to the board within a period of 14 days from the date on which such additional information was furnished to it by the board.

(2)  The board may on good cause shown extend the period referred to in subregulation (1) for an additional period not exceeding 30 days.

11.   (1)  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in these regulations, the board shall be entitled in its discretion either—

            (a)            without formal hearing, to give a decision based on the documents submitted to the board in accordance with regulations 9 and 10; or

            (b)            owing to the nature or complexity of the appeal, to cause the matter to be set down for hearing on a date and at a time and place to be indicated by the chairman and the chairman shall at least 14 days before the date of such hearing serve a notice by registered post upon each of the members and the parties informing them of such date, time and place.

(2)  (a)  The board may, if it considers the attendance of any person as a witness necessary for the purpose of hearing an appeal, summon such person by causing a notice, substantially in the form set out in Annexure B to these regulations, to be served by registered post on such person.

(b)  Any person on whom a notice has been served in terms of these regulations who fails to attend in terms of such notice or who, having so attended, absents himself from the hearing without having been excused by the board, shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding R200 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two months.

(3)  Neither the chairman nor any member shall participate in any proceedings of the board or in any way influence or try to influence the decision of the board in any matter being dealt with or required to be dealt with by the board if the chairman or member has any direct or indirect pecuniary or personal interest in any such matter.

12.   (1)  Subject to the provisions of these regulations the rules of the law of evidence shall not apply in respect of the proceedings before the board, and the board may ascertain any relevant fact and regulate its own procedure in such manner as it may deem fit.

(2)  The parties and their duly authorised representatives shall be entitled to appear at the hearing of an appeal, to call and examine witnesses, to produce plans, specifications or other papers relevant to the appeal and to examine any such plan, specification or paper.

(3)  The provisions of subsection (2) shall not affect the board’s power to decide that sufficient evidence has been adduced on which a decision can be arrived at, and to order that no further evidence shall be adduced.

(4)  The board may require any witness whether before giving evidence or during the course of his evidence to take an oath or make an affirmation and such oath or affirmation shall be administered by the chairman.

(5)  The board may conduct an inspection in loco, which may include an inspection of the way or manner in which any building material is manufactured or processed on any premises, if the use or application of such building material is or becomes a matter in issue in the appeal.

(6)  In the event of an appeal not being proceeded with by an appellant on the day appointed by the board for the hearing thereof, the appeal may be struck off the roll, but may be reinstated if the appellant on subsequent application satisfies the board that his failure to proceed with the appeal was due to circumstances beyond his control.

(7)  If any review proceedings have been commenced by the board and the chairman or other member shall for any reason be unable or disqualified to participate in such proceedings to their final conclusion, the proceedings shall be quashed and shall be commenced de novo before a board constituted in terms of the Act.

13.   (1)  The decisions of the board shall be taken by majority vote.

(2)  Any proceedings before the board may be adjourned by the chairman to such date, time and place as he may deem fit.

(3)  The board may at any time prior to its final decision in its discretion order any proceedings to be re-opened for the purpose of hearing or considering further evidence or arguments which, as may be directed by the board, may be either oral or written.

(4)  The board may—

            (a)            dismiss the appeal and confirm the refusal or any conditional approval of the local authority; or

            (b)            uphold the appeal in whole or in part, and

            (c)            order the local authority to pay a successful appellant an amount equivalent to the amount paid by the appellant in terms of regulation 9 (3), or any part of such amount.

14.   Any person summoned by the board in terms of regulation 11 (2) shall be entitled to witness fees, paid by the council, in accordance with the tariff of allowances prescribed in terms of section 51bis of the Magistrates’ Courts Act, 1944 (Act 32 of 1944), payable to a witness in civil proceedings before a magistrate’s court.

15.   Subject to the provisions of regulation 13 (4) (c) each party shall be liable for his own costs in regard to any appeal to the board.

16.   (1)  The chairman shall keep or cause to be kept minutes of the proceedings of the board, as well as a record of any evidence given before the board, and such minutes and record, the relevant notice of appeal, any document which the board has considered and the written reasons of the board, shall constitute the record of the proceedings of the board.

(2)  Such minutes and record shall be forwarded to and kept in safe custody by the Director-General and such records shall be open for inspection by any person against payment of a search fee of R20 for each record so inspected.

17.   Any power or duty conferred or imposed on the Director-General by these regulations may be delegated or assigned to any member of the staff of the council and the Director-General shall not thereby be divested or relieved of any such power or duty by reason of such delegation or assignment.

18.   (1)  Any member of the board who is not in the full-time service of the State or the bureau, shall receive the remuneration and travel and subsistance allowance according to the rules for the financial and General Administration of Commissions and Deparmental Committees of Enquiry as determined by the Treasury from time to time.

(2)  Any such remuneration and allowances shall be paid by the council.

19.   Any person who—

            (a)            obstructs, hinders or interferes with any proceedings of the board;

            (b)            discloses, except when required to do so by a court of law, any information or evidence relating to any matter dealt with by the board which he reasonably should have known would be likely to defeat the purpose of the decision of such board;

            (c)            knowingly makes a false statement in connection with any provisions of these regulations;

            (d)            fails to comply with any order or instruction given by the board in terms of these regulations,

shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding R200 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two months.

ANNEXURE A

Building Industries Federation of South Africa.

Institute of South African Architects.

South African Institute of Civil Engineers.

South African Institute of Municipal Engineers.

South African Institute of Drainage and Building Inspectors.

South African Institute of Mechanical Engineers.

South African Institute of Quantity Surveyors.

Association of Building Societies of South Africa.

South African Association of Consulting Engineers.

The Association of Municipal Electricity Undertakings of South Africa.

The South African Institute of Town and Regional Planners.

South African Institution of Electrical Engineers.

South African Property Owners Association.

South African Institute of Steel Construction.

South African Institution of Chemical Engineers.

Portland Cement Institute of South Africa.

Fire Protection Association of South Africa.

Lumbermillers Association of South Africa.

The Department of Public Works and Land Affairs.

The National Housing Commission.

The Department of Health and Welfare.

The South African Transport Services.

The Department of Environmental Affairs.

South African Institute of Building Designers.

National Association of House Builders.

South African Institute of Building.

ANNEXURE B

 

You,     are hereby

summoned to appear at the hearing of the appeal by        

           

against the refusal/conditional approval by the local authority          

of the application referred to in section 6 (3) of 7 of the above-mentioned Act in respect of the erection of a building on Erf/Stand/Lot No. ........................ situated within the said local authority’s area of jurisdiction.

You are required to bring with you and to produce to the review board the following:

           

           

           

           

The appeal will be heard at .............................. on the .............................. 19...... at .............................. or as soon thereafter as may be possible.

Given under my hand at Pretoria this .............................. day of .............................. 19......

           

Chairman: Review Board

Note.—You will be rendered liable to a fine not exceeding R200 or to imprisonment not exceeding two months if you fail to—

            (a)            appear on the date and at the time and place specified in this notice;

            (b)            produce any book, document or object if required to do so in terms of this notice; or

            (c)            remain in attendance until the end of the proceedings or until you are excused by the chairman of the review board.  

 

GNR.2075 of 13 September 1985:  Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 16 – Report to the minister

NOTE:—These regulations were published in Government Notice 2075 of 13 September 1985 in Government Gazette 9927.

I, Kent Diederich Skelton Durr, Deputy Minister of Finance and of Trade and Industry, acting on behalf of the Minister of Trade and Industry, have, in terms of section 20 read with section 16 of the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977), promulgated the regulations set out in the Schedule.

SCHEDULE

1.   In these regulations any word to which a meaning has been assigned in the Act shall bear that meaning and unless the context otherwise indicates—

            (a)            “order” shall mean, in relation to a local authority, an order in terms of section 16 (1) of the Act, and in relation to the bureau, an order in terms of section 16 (2) of the Act;

            (b)            “the Act” shall mean the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977).

2.   (1)  A local authority or the bureau as the case may be, may obtain any information it may require for this purpose, by notice in writing—

            (a)            (i)            from the owner of any building situated within the area of jurisdiction of such local authority; or

            (ii)            from any other person.

                        such information to be furnished within a period stated in such notice which shall not be less than 14 days.

            (b)            by the publication of a notice in one English and one Afrikaans newspaper circulating in the area of jurisdiction of the local authority concerned, setting out the general import of the order, and inviting any interested person or body to submit representations within a period stated in the notice;

            (c)            by interviewing the owner of any building or any other person affected or likely to be affected by the order;

            (d)            by entering any building or premises at all reasonable hours; or

            (e)            by removing for the purpose of examination or analysis, material or any object from any building, or by photographing any such building.

(2)  Such further information it may require for these purposes may be obtained by the bureau from the local authority to whose area of  jurisdiction such order relates, and such local authority shall furnish the bureau with all such information the bureau may require, and shall grant the bureau or its duly authorised representative access to such local authority’s records and registers.

3.   Any person representing or purporting to represent the local authority concerned or the bureau, as the case may be, may be required by any person affected, or likely to be affected by an order to produce a document issued by the local authority or the bureau, establishing his identification and authority.

4.   The local authority or the bureau or any person who is or was concerned in the performance of any function in terms of these regulations shall not disclose any information which was obtained in the performance of such a function except under the authority and with the permission of the Minister.

5.   (1)  Any person who—

            (a)            fails to comply with a notice served on him in terms of regulation 2 (1) (a);

            (b)            hinders or obstructs the local authority or the bureau as the case may be from exercising its functions in terms of these regulations;

            (c)            contravenes the provisions of regulation 4;

            (d)            makes any relevant statement which is false in any material respect, knowing it to be false; or

            (e)            refuse or fails to answer to the best of his ability any relevant question put to him,

shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding R200 or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding two months.

GNR.2076 of 13 September 1985:  Regulations in terms of section 20 read with section 17 (5) (a) – Servitudes or restrictive conditions over land

NOTE:—These regulations were published in Government Notice 2076 of 13 September 1985 in Government Gazette 9927.

I, Kent Diederich Skelton Durr, Deputy Minister of Finance and of Trade and Industry, acting on behalf of the Minister of Trade and Industry, have, in terms of section 20 read with section 17 (5) (a) of the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977), promulgated the regulations set out in the Schedule.

SCHEDULE

1.   In these regulations any word to which a meaning has been assigned in the Act shall bear that meaning and unless the context otherwise indicates—

“the Act” shall mean the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977).

2.   The Minister may—

            (a)            cause a notice to be published in the Gazette and in one English and one Afrikaans newspaper circulating in the area in which the land in respect of which a notice in the Gazette in terms of section 17 (5) (a) of the Act is to be published, is situated, containing—

            (i)            the import of the notice;

            (ii)            an exposition of the nature of the applicable servitude, restrictive condition or other provisions;

            (iii)            a description of the land and its extent; and

            (iv)            an invitation to any interested person to submit representations or objections within a period stated in the notice, which shall be not less than 30 days;

            (b)            simultaneously with the publication of the notice referred to in paragraph (a), cause a copy of the said notice to be sent by registered post to—

            (i)            every owner of such land;

            (ii)            the holder of any mortgage bond or deed of hypothecation registered over such land;

            (iii)            every owner of other land which may be directly affected by the proposed removal or amendment;

            (iv)            the persons in whose favour the servitude, restrictive conditions or other provision is registered, should the names and permanent residential or business addresses of such persons be known;

            (v)            the Registrar of Deeds concerned;

            (vi)            the Administrator of the province concerned;

            (vii)            the local authority within whose jurisdiction such land is situated.

Doc No 0400 of 1999:  The South African Bureau of Standards Code of Practice for the application of the National Building Regulations

ARRANGEMENT OF REGULATIONS

 

1.         Scope 

2.            Definitions      

3.            Compliance with Regulations      

 

PART A

ADMINISTRATION

PART B

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

 

BB1     General           

BB2            Structural design          

BB3            Structural materials      

BB4            Responsibility for design and construction     

 

PART C

DIMENSIONS

 

CC1     General           

CC2     Plan dimensions       

CC3     Room heights 

CC4     Floor area     

 

PART D

PUBLIC SAFETY

 

DD1     General           

DD2     Change in level 

DD3     Ramps 

DD4            Swimming pools and swimming baths           

 

PART E

DEMOLITION WORK

PART F

SITE OPERATIONS

 

FF1      General           

FF2            Sanitary facilities         

 

PART G

EXCAVATIONS

 

GG1     General           

GG2            Excavations for foundations      

 

PART H

FOUNDATIONS

 

HH1     General           

HH2            Empirical rules for foundations      

 

PART J

FLOORS

 

JJ1       General           

JJ2       Floor Construction    

JJ3       Under-floor Membrane       

 

PART K

WALLS

 

KK1    General           

KK2    Building limitations for empirical design           

KK3            Empirical rules for walls    

KK4            Materials         

KK5    Wall dimensions       

KK6            External masonry cladding or infilling panels in framed buildings          

KK7            Columns and piers in walls    

KK8    Cavity walls    

KK9            Foundation walls         

KK10            Balustrade walls         

KK11  Free-standing walls  

KK12            Retaining walls of masonry          

KK13  Roof Anchoring        

KK14  Water penetration      

KK15  Damp-proof course    

KK16            Behaviour in fire         

KK17  Rain penetration test for walls          

 

PART L

ROOFS

 

LL1      General           

LL2            Empirical rules for the construction of roofs   

LL3            Construction and fixing of structural roof components     

LL4      Fire resistance and combustibility   

LL5            Waterproofing 

 

PART M

STAIRWAYS

 

MM1   General           

MM2            Dimensional requirements    

MM3            Prevention against falling   

MM4   Fire requirements    

 

PART N

GLAZING

 

NN1    General           

NN2            Installation of glazing    

NN3    Safety glazing 

 

PART O

LIGHTING AND VENTILATION

 

OO1    General           

OO2    Natural lighting 

OO3    Zone of space for natural lighting  

OO4    Natural Ventilation       

OO5    Natural lighting and ventilation of rooms opening onto enclosed balconies, galleries verandahs and courts  

OO6            Artificial lighting           

OO7            Artificial ventilation      

 

PART P

DRAINAGE

 

PP1      General           

PP2            Materials, pipes, fittings and joints         

PP3            Sanitary fixture standards         

PP4            Standards for WC pans    

PP5            Standards for urinals    

PP6      Flexible connectors for WC pans         

PP7            Electrical sanitary fixtures

PP8            Macerator type sanitary-towel disposers         

PP9      Sewage lifts      

PP10            Conservancy tanks, septic tanks and french drains  

PP11            Discharges from washing areas  

PP12            Discharges from swimming baths, swimming pools, fountains or reservoirs    

PP13            Provision of sanitary fixtures

PP14            Hydraulic loading of drainage installations      

PP15            Drainage systems         

PP16    Sizing of discharge pipes   

PP17    Sizing of drains          

PP18            Protection of water seals    

PP19    Sizing of ventilating pipes   

PP20            Installation of discharge pipes and ventilating pipes           

PP21    Access to drainage installation        

PP22            Provision of traps       

PP23            Provision of gullies     

PP24            Installation of drains     

PP25            Common drains         

PP26    Test for drains  

PP27    Tests for discharge pipes and ventilating pipes           

PP28    In-situ percolation test for soils           

 

PART Q

NON-WATER-BORNE MEANS OF SANITARY DISPOSAL

 

QQ1    General           

QQ2            Construction    

QQ3    Siting   

 

PART R

STORMWATER DISPOSAL

 

RR1     General           

RR2            Stormwater disposal    

RR3     Valleys and gutters       

RR4     Access to stormwater drains  

RR5            Connection to stormwater sewer  

RR6     Use of street surface drainage system           

 

PART S

FACILITIES FOR DISABLED PERSONS

 

SS1      General           

SS2      Ramps 

SS3      Lifts     

SS4      Doors  

SS5      Toilet facilities           

SS6            Auditoria and halls       

SS7            Obstructions in path of travel   

SS8      Parking

SS9            Indication of existence of facilities       

 

PART T

FIRE PROTECTION

 

TT1      General           

TT2      Safety distances         

TT3            Different occupancies in a building         

TT4      Division area     

TT5      Fire performance: general

TT6      Fire resistance of occupancy and division separating elements          

TT7      Fire stability of structural elements or components     

TT8            Tenancy separating elements          

TT9            Partition walls and partitions         

TT10            Protection of openings 

TT11    Raised access and suspended floors of combustible material           

TT12    Roof assemblies and coverings         

TT13    Ceilings           

TT14    Floor coverings         

TT15    Wall finishes

TT16            Provision of escape routes  

TT17    Exit doors  

TT18    Feeder routes  

TT19            Emergency routes        

TT20            Dimensions of components of escape routes  

TT21    Width of escape routes  

TT22            Basements       

TT23            Stairways and other changes of level along escape routes  

TT24            Ventilation of stairways in an emergency route   

TT25            Pressurization of stairways in an emergency route   

TT26            Openings in floors       

TT27            External stairways and passages          

TT28            Lobbies, foyers and vestibules         

TT29            Markings and signposting       

TT30    Lighting of feeder and emergency routes  

TT31    Fire detection and alarm systems  

TT32            Provision of fire-fighting equipment        

TT33    Water reticulation for fire-fighting purposes         

TT34    Hose reels    

TT35            Hydrants         

TT36            Sprinkler systems       

TT37            Portable fire extinguishers    

TT38    Mobile fire extinguishers    

TT39    Fire stopping of inaccessible concealed spaces 

TT40            Protection in service shafts   

TT41            Services in structural or separating elements          

TT42    Smoke control 

TT43    Air-conditioning and ventilation systems           

TT44    No smoking signs  

TT45    Lift shafts   

TT46    Lift      

TT47            Firemen’s lift  

TT48            Stretcher lift    

TT49    Stage and backstage areas   

TT50    Seating arrangements in auditoria or halls and on grandstands     

TT51    Parking garages

TT52            Operating theatres and intensive care units    

TT53            Installation of liquid fuel dispensing pumps and tanks   

TT54            Installation of other tanks   

TT55    Access to buildings for fire fighting and rescue purposes         

TT56            Presumed fire resistance of building materials and components     

TT57    Non-combustible building materials          

 

PART U

REFUSE DISPOSAL

 

                       

 

PART V

SPACE HEATING

 

VV1     General           

VV2     Flue pipes   

VV3            Chimneys        

VV4     Hearths and fireplaces for solid fuel appliances       

 

PART W

FIRE INSTALLATION

 

WW1   General           

WW2            Communication pipe    

WW3   Water meter   

WW4            Isolating valves           

WW5   Fire installations      

 

1.   Scope

1.1   This code of practice covers provisions for building site operations and building design and construction that are deemed to satisfy the provisions of the National Building Regulations.

NOTE: A specimen form and certificate for local authority use and a sign to indicate facilities for disabled persons are given in Appendix 1.

2.   Definitions

2.1   Any term defined in the National Building Regulations has the same meaning when used in this code. Particular attention is drawn to the definition of “council”. In both the regulations and the code of any term that is not defined shall be assumed to have its ordinarily accepted meaning or that which the context may imply. In addition, in accordance with the normal tenets of law, words used in the present tense include the future; words used in the masculine gender include the feminine; and the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular.

For the purposes of this code the following definitions shall apply:

“acceptable”, “adequate”, “satisfactory” or “suitable” means acceptable, adequate, satisfactory or suitable—

            (a)            in the opinion of any local authority; or

            (b)            in relation to any document issued by the council, in the opinion of the council;

“access door” means an entrance door to an emergency route;

“air conditioning system” means a system of mechanical ventilation where air that has been cleansed is supplied to a building under conditions of controlled temperature, humidity, distribution and movement;

“air duct” means any pipe, tube, conduit or enclosed space used or to be used in any building for the transmission of air in an artificial ventilation system;

“applicant” means any person who makes an application;

“application” means an application contemplated in section 4 of the Act;

“approval” means—

            (a)            approval by any local authority, including approval contemplated in section 7 (7) (b) of the Act; or

            (b)            approval by the review board on appeal to the review board in terms of the Act;

“approved” means—

            (a)            approved by any local authority; or

            (b)            approved by the review board on appeal to the review board in terms of the Act;

“artificial ventilation system” means a system in which air is caused to circulate through a room by means of a mechanical apparatus which forces air into or extracts air from such room;

“automatic” in relation to fire-doors, fire-shutters, fire-dampers, fire-alarms, or fire extinguishing equipment means fitted with an approved device which is activated by a predetermined amount of heat, smoke, combustion gases or flame without the need for any manual operation;

“backflow” means the flow of water in any pipe in a direction opposite to the normal direction of flow;

“back siphonage” means the backflow of water resulting from negative pressure in a water installation or in the water supply system;

“back vent” means a ventilating pipe connecting a branch discharge pipe, to which unvented fixture discharge pipes are connected, to a vent stack or to a stack vent;

“balustrade wall” means a wall serving the purpose of a balustrade;

“block” means any masonry unit which has a length of more than 300 mm or a width of more than 130 mm;

“branch discharge pipe” means a horizontal discharge pipe conveying the discharge from one or more sanitary fixtures to a discharge stack;

“branch drain” means any drain which discharges into a main drain;

“branch vent” means a horizontal ventilating pipe connecting two or more trap vents to a vent stack or to a stack vent;

“brick” means any masonry unit which is not a block;

“building height” means the dimensional height in metres measured from the lowest ground level abutting any part of the building to the level of—

            (a)            the underside of a flat roof; or

            (b)            the underside of the roof of any plant room on such flat roof where the plan area of the plant room is more than 10% of the area of such flat roof; or

            (c)            a horizontal ceiling which is immediately under any pitched roof; or

            (d)            half-way between the eaves level and the ridge of any pitched roof where there is no ceiling below such roof or where the ceiling follows the pitch of such roof;

“building line” in relation to a site, means a line prescribed in any town planning scheme or any other law designating the boundaries of the area of the site outside of which the erection above ground of any building is prohibited;

“capacity” of any storage tank means the volume of such tank between the operating level of the water contained in such tank and the invert of the outlet from the tank;

“carport” means a building intended to provide shelter for a motor vehicle, caravan or boat and having a roof but having walls on not more than two sides;

“chemical closet” means a closet with a fixed pan, the excreta from which pass into a tank where they are acted upon by chemicals which sterilize and break them down;

“chimney” means that part of a building which forms part of a flue, but does not include a flue pipe;

“class”, in relation to a fire-door or fire-shutter, means the class thereof as defined in SABS 1253;

“cleaning eye” means any access opening to the interior of a discharge pipe or trap provided for the purposes of internal cleaning, and which remains permanently accessible after completion of the drainage installation;

“combustible” means the opposite of non-combustible;

“common drain” means that portion of a drain which conveys sewage other than or in addition to that sewage which emanates from the site through which such drain runs;

“communication pipe” means any pipe in a water supply system to which any water installation is connected;

“competent person” means a person who is qualified by virtue of his experience and training;

“connecting sewer” means a pipe vested in the local authority which connects a drain to a sewer;

“conservancy tank” means a covered tank used for the reception and temporary retention of sewage and which requires emptying at intervals;

“consumer” means any person who is obtaining a supply of water from the local authority;

“council” means the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards;

“cross vent” means a ventilating pipe connecting a discharge stack to a vent stack;

“dark room” means any room used for the purposes of handling or processing light sensitive material;

“dead-end corridor” means any corridor along which it is possible to travel only in one direction in order to reach a feeder route or emergency route;

“dead load” means the gravitational force caused by the static mass of all permanent parts of a building;

“deemed-to-satisfy rule” (or rule) means a non-mandatory provision which describes a method of design or construction that is deemed to comply with a particular functional regulation;

“developed length” of any pipe means the length between two specified points on such pipe measured along the centre line of such pipe, including any bend, junction or similar fitting;

“discharge pipe” means a pipe which conveys the discharge from a sanitary fixture to a drain, and includes a soil pipe, a waste pipe, a discharge stack, a branch discharge pipe or a fixture discharge pipe;

“discharge stack” means any vertical discharge pipe which conveys the discharge from two or more sanitary fixtures and which is connected directly to a drain;

“division” means a portion of a building separated from the remainder of such building by one or more separating elements;

“division wall” means an internal wall that separates one division from another division in any building and that has a fire resistance of not less than that required by these regulations;

“domestic effluent” means sewage consisting of soil water or waste water or a combination of both;

“drain” means that part of any drainage installation outside a building and which is below ground level, but shall not include the following—

            (a)            any discharge pipe;

            (b)            that portion of a discharge stack which is below ground level;

            (c)            the bend at the foot of a discharge stack;

“drainage installation” means any installation vested in the owner of a site and which is situated on such site and is intended for the reception, conveyance, storage or treatment of sewage, and may include sanitary fixtures, traps, discharge pipes, drains, ventilating pipes, septic tanks, conservancy tanks, sewage treatment works, or mechanical appliances associated therewith;

“drencher system” means an approved system of piping and outlets which, when actuated manually or by the action of fire, releases a continuous curtain of water;

“dwelling house” means a single dwelling unit and any garage and other domestic outbuildings thereto, situated on its own site;

“dwelling unit” means a unit containing one or more habitable rooms and provided with adequate sanitary and cooking facilities;

“electrical sanitary fixture” means a device which is connected to an electricity supply and to a water supply to perform a function such as the washing of clothes or dishes, or rendering waste matter suitable for disposal into a discharge pipe and includes a food-waste disposer, and a sanitary-towel disposer;

“emergency route” means that part of an escape route which provides fire protection to the occupants of any building and which leads to an escape door;

“escape door” means that door in an escape route which, at ground level, leads directly to a street or public place or to any approved open space which leads to a street or public place;

“escape route” means the entire path of travel from the furthest point in any room in a building to the nearest escape door and may include an emergency route;

“evapo-transpirative bed” means an effluent disposal system comprising a shallow sand-filled excavation covered with top soil and planted over with suitable vegetation;

“exit door” means any door that is a component of an escape route from any room;

“feeder route” means that part of an escape route which allows travel in two different directions to the access doors to at least two emergency routes;

“fire-damper” means an automatic damper and its assembly that complies with the requirements contained in SABS 193;

“fire-door” or “fire-shutter” means an automatic or self-closing door or shutter assembly especially constructed to prevent the passage of fire for a specific length of time;

“fire installation” means any water installation which conveys water solely for the purpose of fire-fighting;

“fire load” means the sum of the heat energy values of all combustible materials, including combustible partitions and other exposed combustible elements, contained in a compartment or division;

“fire resistance” means the shortest period for which a building element or component will comply with the requirements for stability, integrity and insulation when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II;

“fire-stop” means a draft tight barrier or seal placed within or between building elements in shafts, voids and other concealed spaces to retard the spread of flame, heat or smoke;

“fixture branch” means a horizontal fixture discharge pipe;

“fixture discharge pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys the discharge from a single sanitary fixture;

“fixture unit” means an arbitrary unit of measure for expressing the hydraulic loading on a drainage installation;

“fixture unit rating” means the value in fixture units assigned to a sanitary fixture from a consideration of the duration of its discharge, the interval between discharges and its mean discharge rate;

“flammable” means having a closed cup flash point lower than 90°C;

“floor area”, in relation to a building or a storey thereof, means the total area enclosed within its external walls, exclusive of the area occupied by any lift shaft;

“flight” means that part of a stairway which consists of consecutive steps;

“flue” means a passage which conveys the discharge of a heat generating appliance to the external air;

“flue pipe” means a pipe forming a flue but does not include a pipe built as a lining into a chimney;

“foundation” means that part of a building which is in direct contact with and is intended to transmit loads to the ground;

“foundation wall” means that portion of a wall between the foundation and the lowest floor above such foundation;

“free-standing wall” means a wall, not being a retaining wall, without lateral support;

“french drain” means a trench filled with suitable material which is used for the disposal of liquid effluent from a septic tank or waste water;

“functional regulation” means a regulation that sets out what is required of a building, building element or building component in respect of a particular characteristic without specifying the method of construction, dimensions or materials to be used;

“garage” means an enclosed area which is used or intended to be used for the parking, storing, servicing or repairing of motor vehicles;

“general installation” means any water installation which conveys water for any purpose other than fire-fighting;

“going” means the distance (measured on plan) between the nosing of a tread and the nosing of the tread or landing next above it;

“gully” means a pipe fitting incorporating a trap into which waste water is discharged;

“habitable room” means a room used or designed, erected, adapted or intended to be used by persons for sleeping in, living in, the preparation or consumption of food or drink, the transaction of business, the rendering of professional services, the manufacture, processing or sale of goods, the performance of work, the gathering together of persons or for recreational purposes;

“height” means building height;

“high risk substance” means any substance listed in the schedule to the Administrative Regulations, as amended, made in terms of the Machinery and Occupational Safety Act, 1983 (Act Repealed by Act 85 of 1993.6 of 1983);

“horizontal”, in relation to a discharge pipe or ventilating pipe, means inclined at less than 45° to the horizontal;

“imposed load” means any force assumed in the design of any building, caused by the intended occupancy thereof or by earth pressure, snow, hail, groundwater or the ponding of rainwater;

“incremental house” means any dwelling house that, for reasons of affordability, is to be constructed in stages in such a manner that in its intermediate stages the house can be occupied by its owner for the specified limited period of time necessary to complete it and that is intended, in its finally approved form, to have a total plan area of not more than 80 m2;

“industrial effluent” means any liquid whether or not containing matter in solution or suspension which is given off in the course of or as a result of any industrial, trade, manufacturing, mining or chemical process or any laboratory, research or agricultural activity, and includes any liquid other than soil water or stormwater;

“inspection chamber” means a chamber not deeper than 750 mm and of such dimension that access may be obtained to a drain without requiring a person to enter into such chamber;

“inspection eye” means any access opening to the interior of any pipe or pipe fitting in a drainage installation provided solely for the purposes of inspection and testing, and to which permanent access after completion of the drainage installation need not be provided;

“laminated glass” means two sheets of ordinary annealed glass bonded to a shear and impact resistant plastic interlayer;

“laminated toughened glass” means a laminated glass where one or both sheets of ordinary annealed glass are replaced by a sheet or sheets of toughened glass;

“landing” means a platform between two consecutive flights of a stairway;

“lateral boundary” means a boundary of a site other than a boundary between such site and any street or public place with a width of more than 6 m measured at right angles to such boundary;

“load” means any force to which a building is or may be subjected, and includes dead, imposed, wind and seismic loads and forces caused by dimensional changes of materials;

“main drain” means the longest run of drain from a building to a common drain, to a means of sewage disposal situated on the site concerned, or to a connecting sewer;

“manhole” means a chamber of a depth greater than 750 mm and of such dimension that allows entry of a person into such chamber for the purpose of providing access to a drain;

“masonry wall” means an assemblage of masonry units joined together with mortar or grout;

“mezzanine storey” means any mezzanine storey the floor area of which does not exceed 25% of that of the floor below it;

“minor building work” as contemplated in section 13 of the Act means—

            (a)            the erection of any—

            (i)            poultry house not exceeding 10 m2 in area;

            (ii)            aviary not exceeding 20 m2 in area;

            (iii)            solid fuel store not exceeding 10 m2 in area and 2 m in height;

            (iv)            tool shed not exceeding 10 m2 in area;

            (v)            child’s playhouse not exceeding 5 m2 in area;

            (vi)            cycle shed not exceeding 5 m2 in area;

            (vii)            greenhouse not exceeding 15 m2 in area;

            (viii)            open-sided car, caravan or boat shelter or a carport where such shelter or carport does not exceed 40 m2 in area;

            (ix)            any free-standing wall constructed of masonry, concrete or timber or any wire fence where such wall or fence does not exceed 1,8 m in height;

            (x)            any pergola;

            (xi)            private swimming pool;

            (xii)            change room, not exceeding 10 m2 in area, at a private swimming pool;

            (b)            the replacement of a roof or part thereof with the same or similar material;

            (c)            the conversion of a door into a window or a window into a door without increasing the width of the opening;

            (d)            the making of an opening in a wall which does not affect the structural safety of the building concerned;

            (e)            the partitioning or the enlarging of any room by the erection or demolition of an internal wall if such erection or demolition does not affect the structural safety of the building concerned;

            ( f )            the erection of any solar water heater not exceeding 6 m2 in area on any roof or 12 m2 when erected other than on any roof; and

            (g)            the erection of any other building where the nature of the erection is such that in the opinion of the building control officer it is not necessary for the applicant to submit, with his application, plans prepared in full conformity with these regulations;

“natural ventilation” means the movement of air through a building due to natural causes;

“non-combustible” means classified as non-combustible when tested in accordance with code of practice SABS 0177: Part V;

“non-structural wall” means a wall which does not form part of a structure but which may from time to time be subject to forces other than its own weight;

“nosing” means the front edge of a tread and includes the front edge of the top surface of any landing which is situated at the top of a flight;

“obstruction” means any building or other object which partially or completely intersects any zone of space serving a window but shall not include any narrow object such as a pole or railing which does not materially obstruct the entry of light and air to the opening concerned;

“occupancy” means the particular use or the type of use to which a building or portion thereof is normally put or intended to be put;

“one-pipe system” means a system of piping between sanitary fixtures and a drain in which both waste and soil water discharge down a common discharge stack and in which any trap venting or other venting that is required may be via a common vent stack;

“operating water level” means the level of water reached in any storage tank when the value controlling the inlet of water to such tank closes under normal operating conditions;

“outside air” means air which is drawn into the building from the outside and which has not been circulated through such building;

“overflow gully” means a gully which allows the overflow of sewage but prevents the ingress of foreign matter, including rainwater directly from above;

“pail closet” means a closet with a removable pail which is systematically emptied or replaced;

“partition” means an interior construction less than one storey in height and is generally of a light construction and is demountable;

“partition wall” means a non-structural internal wall extending to the ceiling and constructed for the purpose of subdividing a space;

“pit latrine” means a closet placed over or adjacent to an excavation which is of adequate depth;

“pitch line” means a notional line which connects the nosings of all the treads in a flight or stairs;

“population” means the population determined in accordance with regulation A21;

“prescriptive rule (or prescriptive regulation)” means a rule or regulation which describes in some detail an operation to be performed, or the dimensions of a building, building element or building component and the materials and method of construction to be used in such building, building element or building component;

“pressurization” means the creation of a positive air pressure differential between one area of and the remainder of a building and “pressurized” shall have a corresponding meaning;

“public place” means any square, park, recreation ground or open space which—

            (a)            is vested in the local authority; or

            (b)            the public has the right to use; or

            (c)            is shown on a general plan of a township filed in a deeds registry or a Surveyor-General’s office and has been provided for or reserved for the use of the public or the owners of erven in such township;

“range” means a number of like sanitary fixtures closely spaced and discharging to a common branch discharge pipe which does not receive the discharge from any other sanitary fixture not in the range;

“rational design” means any design involving a process of reasoning and calculation and may include any such design based on the use of a code of practice or other relevant technical document;

“regulation” means national building regulation;

“resealing trap” means a trap so designed that some of the water forming its seal is retained during siphonic action to reseal after siphonage has been broken;

“retaining wall” means a wall intended to resist the lateral displacement of materials;

“rodding eye” means an access opening in a drainage installation provided for the purposes of gaining full-bore access to the interior of a drain for internal cleaning, and which remains permanently accessible after completion of the installation, but does not include an inspection chamber or manhole;

“roof assembly” means a building cover and its supporting structure including any ceiling attached to such structure;

“safety distance” means the distance provided between any building and the lateral boundary of the site, or where there are two buildings on the same site, the distance provided between each such building and a notional boundary line between them, so that spread of fire from one building to another due to effect of radiant heat will be minimized;

“safety glass” means a safety glazing material consisting primarily of glass;

“safety glazing material” means any material which complies with the requirements for the performance of safety glazing materials contained in SABS 1263;

“sanitary fixture” means a receptacle to which water is permanently supplied, and from which waste water or soil water is discharged;

“sanitary group” means a combination of sanitary fixtures comprising not more than one each of a WC pan, bath, shower and sink and either two washbasins or one washbasin and one bidet;

“self-closing”, in relation to a door, fire-door, shutter or fire-shutter means equipped with a device to ensure immediate closing of such door, fire-door, shutter or fire-shutter after having been opened;

“separating element” means a wall or floor, which shall have a specific fire resistance, used between divisions, occupancies or tenancies in a building;

“septic tank” means a tank designed to receive sewage and to retain it for such a time and in such a manner as to secure adequate decomposition;

“service pipe” means any pipe which is part of a water installation and which is connected to any communication pipe;

“sewage” means waste water, soil water, industrial effluent and other liquid waste, either separately or in combination, but does not include stormwater;

“sewer” means a pipe or conduit which is the property of or is vested in the local authority and which is used or intended to be used for the conveyance of sewage;

“single-stack system” means a particular one-pipe system in which trap vents are not required in terms of specific criteria set out in Part P;

“site” means any erf, lot, plot, stand or other piece of land on which a building has been, is being or is to be erected;

“soil branch” means a branch discharge pipe which conveys soil water;

“soil fixture” means a sanitary fixture which receives and discharges soil water;

“soil pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys soil water;

“soil water” means liquid containing excreta;

“spiral stairway” means any succession of tapered treads forming a curved stairway which extends as a single flight from one floor to another and which has a minimum radius of curvature of less than 100 mm;

“sprinkler system” means an approved system of piping and sprinkler heads connected to a water supply which when actuated by the effect of fire automatically releases water;

“stack vent” means a ventilating pipe connecting to a discharge stack above the highest connected discharge pipe;

“stairway” means any part of a building which provides a route of travel between different levels in such building and is formed by a single flight or by a combination of two or more flights and one or more intervening landings;

“storage tank” means any tank, other than any tank used for storage of hot water or any cistern serving a WC pan or a urinal, which forms part of a water installation and is used for the storage of water;

“storey” means that part of a building which is situated between the top of any floor and the top of the floor next above it, or if there is no floor above it that portion between such floor and the ceiling above it (any mezzanine floor, open work floor, catwalk or gallery being taken to be part of the storey in which it is situated), and in relation to a building—

            (a)            the ground storey shall be taken as the storey in which there is situated an entrance to the building from the level of the adjoining ground or, if there is more than one such storey the lower or lowest of these:

            (b)            a basement shall be taken to be any part of the building which is below the level of the ground storey; and

            (c)            an upper storey shall be taken to be any storey of the building which is above the level of the ground storey; and

            (d)            the height expressed in storeys shall be taken to be that number of storeys which includes all storeys other than a basement;

“stormwater” means water resulting from natural precipitation or accumulation and includes rainwater, surface water, subsoil water or spring water;

“stormwater drain” means a pipe, conduit or surface channel situated on a site, which is used to convey stormwater to a suitable point of discharge;

“stormwater sewer” means a pipe, conduit or channel, owned by or vested in the local authority, which is used for the conveyance of stormwater;

“street” means any street, road, thoroughfare, lane, footpath, sidewalk, subway or bridge which—

            (a)            is vested in the local authority; or

            (b)            the public has the right to use; or

            (c)            is shown on a general plan of a township filed in a deeds registry or a Surveyor-General’s office and has been provided or reserved for use by the public or the owners of erven in such township;

“street boundary”, in relation to a site, means the boundary of such site which abuts any street;

“structural” means relating to or forming part of any structural system;

“structural system”, in relation to a building, means the system of constructional elements and components of any building which is provided to resist the loads acting upon it and to transfer such loads to the ground upon which the foundation of the building rests;

“structural wall” means a wall forming part of any structural system;

“stub stack” means a straight 100 mm diameter discharge strack not more than one storey high with a rodding eye at its top;

“surface fire index” means a classification awarded to a combustible surfacing material (in excess of 1 mm in thickness) when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part III;

“suspended ceiling” means any ceiling supported on a system of hangers;

“tapered tread” means a tread which has a greater width at one side that at the other and a going which changes at a constant rate throughout its length;

“temporary building” means any building that is so declared by the owner and that is being used or is to be used for a specified purpose for a specified limited period of time, but does not include a builder’s shed;

“the Act” means the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act No. 103 of 1977);

“toughened glass” means a glass produced by subjecting annealed glass to a process of heating and rapid cooling which produces high compression in the surface and compensating tension in the interior;

“trained plumber” means any person who in the trade of plumbing has, in terms of the Manpower Training Act, 1981 (Act No. 56 of 1981), passed a qualifying trade test or has been issued with a certificate of proficiency;

“trap” means a pipe fitting or a part of a sanitary fixture which is designed to retain a water seal;

“trap vent” means a ventilating pipe connecting an individual trap to the open air or to another ventilating pipe;

“travel distance” means—

            (a)            the distance, in any building where emergency routes are required, from the furthest point in any room in such building to an access door; or

            (b)            where no emergency routes are required, the distance from the furthest point in any room in a building to an escape door;

“tread” means the upper surface of a step;

“two-pipe system” means a system of piping between sanitary fixtures and a drain in which waste water and soil water discharge through separate discharge pipes and in which any trap venting or other venting that is required is via separate ventilating pipes for the waste and soil water systems;

“unit fire load” means the fire load of a compartment or division divided by the floor area of such compartment or division, and is expressed either as timber equivalent (kg/m2) or heat energy value per m2 (MJ/m2);

“unprotected steel” means structural steel which is not protected with fire resistant material against the effect of fire;

“vent” means a ventilating pipe;

“ventilating pipe” means a pipe which leads to the open air at its highest point and which provides ventilation throughout a drainage installation for the purpose of preventing the destruction of water seals, but does not include a discharge pipe;

“vent stack” means a main vertical ventilating pipe of any part of a drainage installation;

“vent valve” means a one-way air valve specifically designed and constructed to be fitted near the crown of the trap serving a waste fixture to protect the water seal of such trap against excessive negative air pressure arising in the fixture discharge pipe;

“vertical”, in relation to a discharge pipe or ventilating pipe, means inclined at 45° or more to the horizontal, and in relation to a glass pane means installed at any angle between 60° and 90° to the horizontal, both figures being inclusive;

“waste branch” means a branch discharge pipe which conveys waste water only;

“waste fixture” means a sanitary fixture from which waste water is discharged;

“waste pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys waste water only;

“waste water” means used water not contaminated by soil water or industrial effluent and shall not include stormwater;

“water fitting” means any component, other than a pipe, of any water installation, through which water passes or in which it is stored;

“water installation” means an installation used or intended to be used for the conveyance or storage of water in any building or on any site on which such building is situated and includes any pipe or any water fitting other than any water meter vested in the local authority;

“water seal” means the water in a trap which acts as a barrier against the flow of any foul air or gas;

“water supply system” means any system of structures, aqueducts, pipes, valves, pumps, meters or other appurtenances relating thereto which are vested in the local authority and are used or intended to be used by it in connection with the supply of water;

“wind load” means the force exerted by the action of wind;

“winder” means any tapered tread that has a minimum going of less than 50 mm and which is used in conjunction with non-tapered treads in a single flight;

“wired glass” means annealed glass containing a wire mesh which is completely embedded in the body of the glass during manufacture;

“zone of space” in relation to an opening in an external wall or a portion of such an opening, means a volume of open air outside such opening.

2.2   Where in the code reference is made to a SABS number, such reference shall relate to a document bearing the number and title given in the following table:

 

1          2            3            4         

SABS No            Title            Government Notice Number            Date    

28        Metal ties for cavity walls                 463            1982–07–29 

                        358            1987–02–20 

193      Fire-dampers                       2878            1982–07–09 

241      Water for domestic supplies            463            1982–07–09 

                        2828            1985–12–20 

248            Bituminous damp-proof courses            463            1982–07–09 

                                               

298      Mastic asphalt for damp-proof courses and tanking             463            1982–07–09 

497      Glazed ceramic sanitaryware                 463            1982–07–09 

543      Fire hose reels (with hose)                463            1982–07–09 

                        2329            1985–10–18 

                        1022            1987–05–08 

563      Stress-graded softwood general structural timber               463            1982–07–09 

                        358            1987–02–20 

653            Softwood brandering and battens                   463            1982–07–09 

810            Portable rechargeable dry powder fire extinguishers                 463            1982–07–09 

                        2329            1985–10–18 

876      Glued laminated timber structural members                      463            1982–07–09 

889            Portable fire extinguishers (water types)                463            1982–07–09 

952            Polyolefin film for damp-proofing and waterproofing in buildings                    463            1982–07–09 

                        1264            1986–06–14 

974      Rubber joint rings (non-cellular)                        463            1982–07–09 

                        149            1985–02–01 

                        358            1987–02–20 

1089    SA pine stock glued laminated timber (stocklam)                    463            1982–07–09 

1125    Room air conditioners             463            1982–07–09 

1128    Fire fighting equipment                                

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

                        1264            1985–06–14 

                        1022            1987–05–08 

            Part II              463            1982–07–09 

                        659            1982–09–17 

                        1264            1985–06–14 

1151            Portable fire extinguishers of the halogenated hydrocarbon type                  463            1982–07–09 

1186            Symbolic safety signs                463            1982–07–09 

                        659            1982–09–17 

                        1264            1985–06–14 

                        1584            1986–08–01 

1245    Stress-graded softwood engineering timber               463            1982–07–09 

                        358            1987–02–20 

1253    Fire door assemblies                    463            1982–07–09 

1263    Safety and security glazing materials for buildings                                  

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

                        1584            1986–08–01 

                        2190            1986–10–24 

1372            Prefabricated concrete components for fences               352            1983–05–20 

1390    Steel fencing for private swimming pools                        352            1983–05–20 

05            Preservative treatment of timber                       463            1982–07–09 

082      Timber buildings                       463            1982–07–09 

087            Handling, storage, and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas in domestic commercial, and industrial installations                              

            Part III             463            1982–07–09 

                        151            1985–02–01 

            Part VII                   463            1982–07–09 

089      Code of practice for the petroleum industry                                   

            Part III             463            1982–07–09 

0100            Structural use of concrete                                  

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

                        6            1986–01–03 

            Part II              463            1982–07–09 

0104                463            1982–07–09 

0105    The classification, use, and routine maintenance of portable fire extinguishers                

 

463     

 

1982–07–09   

0106    Solar water heaters                463            1982–07–09 

0114    Interior lighting                         

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

0124            Application of certain soil insecticides for the protection of buildings                      

463     

1982–07–09   

0131    The storage and handling of liquid fuel                                 

            Part II              463            1982–07–09 

                        2634            1984–11–30 

            Part III             552            1982–08–13 

0134    The safeness of private swimming pools           

463     

1982–07–09   

0137    The installation of glazing materials                       151            1985–02–01 

0139    The prevention, automatic detection and extinguishing of fire in buildings             

463     

1982–07–09   

0140            Identification colour marking                                   

            Part III             463            1982–07–09 

0145            Concrete masonry construction                  463            1982–07–09 

0160    General procedures and loadings to be adopted for the design of buildings                      

463     

1982–07–09   

0161    The design of foundations for buildings            463            1982–07–09 

                        151            1985–02–01 

                        2311            1985–10–18 

                        936            1986–05–16 

0162    The structural use of steel                 2639            1984–11–30 

                        936            1986–05–16 

0163    The design of timber structures                                 

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

0164    The structural use of masonry                                  

            Part I                463            1982–07–09 

                        1584            1986–08–01 

                        1878            1987–09–04 

0177    Fire testing of materials, components, and elements used in buildings                                  

            Part II              463            1982–07–09 

            Part III             463            1982–07–09 

                        936            1985–05–16 

            Part IV             463            1982–07–09 

            Part V              463            1982–07–09 

0400    The application of the National Building Regulations                   2484            1990–10–26 

NOTE: The list of standards given in this table was correct on 26 October 1990.

 

3.   Compliance with Regulations

3.1   General.—This section of the code contains rules that in each case represent a way of satisfying the relevant national building regulation where such regulation is a functional regulation, ie compliance with the rule will be deemed to satisfy the regulation. The section has therefore been divided into the same parts as the National Building Regulations and the rules have been numbered consecutively in each part following the numbering in the regulations.

PART A

ADMINISTRATION

There are no deemed-to-satisfy rules in this section.

PART B

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

BB1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part B of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the structural design of any building complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

BB2.   Structural Design

BB2.1   The design of the structural system of any building shall be carried out in accordance with SABS 0160 (for loads) and in accordance with one or more of the following codes of practice relating to the materials used in such building or in any element or component thereof:

            (a)            SABS 0100 (for structural concrete)

            (b)            SABS 0104 (for handrails)

            (c)            SABS 0137 (for glazing)

            (d)            SABS 0161 (for foundations)

            (e)            SABS 0162 (for structural steel)

            ( f )            SABS 0163 (for structural timber)

            (g)            SABS 0164 (for structural masonry)

BB3.   Structural Materials

BB3.1   The material used in the construction of any structural element or component thereof shall be that specified or contemplated in—

            (a)            the relevant SABS code of practice where such code has been used as a basis for the design;

            (b)            rules HH1, JJ1, KK1, LL1 or NN1 of SABS 0400, as the case may be; or

            (c)            any document, other than a SABS code of practice contemplated in rule BB2, which has been used as a basis for the design:

Provided that where the materials specified in such document are not available, other approved materials may be used if they have been shown to be suitable in relation to such document.

BB3.2   Where any structural material other than one covered by any code of practice contemplated in rule BB2 is used in any building, the design of such building and the structural elements and components thereof shall be in accordance with a safe method applicable to the structural use of such other material.

BB4.   Responsibility for Design and Construction

BB4.1   Any rational design of a structural system shall be done or checked by a professional engineer or other approved competent person, and such person shall certify that such design complies with the requirements contained in regulation B1: Provided that nothing shall be construed as precluding the use of rule HH1, JJ1, KK1, LL1, or NN1 as the case may be, where the use of such rule is appropriate.

BB4.2   Such person shall, by means of inspections carried out at such intervals as may be necessary in accordance with accepted professional practice, satisfy himself that the structure has been erected in accordance with the approved design and shall furnish to the local authority a certificate to this effect.

PART C

DIMENSIONS

CC1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part C of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the dimensions of any room or space comply with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

CC2.   Plan Dimensions

CC2.1   The plan dimensions of any room or space shall be the horizontal dimensions between unplastered wall surfaces.

CC2.2   Any floor area shall be based upon the plan dimensions but shall not include any area occupied by any built-in cabinet or cupboard or any dividing wall or partition erected in terms of subrule CC2.4.

CC2.3   The floor area of any room contemplated in column 2 of Table 1 shall be not less than that prescribed for such room in column 3 of Table 1.

Table 1—Room area

 

1          2            3         

Type of occupancy            Room            Minimum plan area      

All occupancies            Any habitable room other than a kitchen, scullery or laundry            6 m2 with no linear dimension of less than 2 m.   

B, D or J            Change rooms and dining rooms            Population 1–15:0,8 m2 per person but not less than 6 m2.       

                        Population 16–100:0,6 m2 per person but not less than 12 m2.     

                        Population more than 100:0,5 m2 per person but not less than 60 m2.     

 

CC2.4   Two or more spaces shall be deemed to be one room if any dividing wall or partition, including any door, erected between such spaces occupies less than 60% of the area of the separating plane.

CC3.   Room Heights

CC3.1   The height of any room or space contemplated in column 1 of Table 2 shall not be less than that prescribed for such room or space in column 2 of Table 2 and shall be the vertical dimension from the top of the finished floor to—

            (a)            the underside of the ceiling;

            (b)            the underside of the roof covering where there is no ceiling; or

            (c)            the underside of any structural members where such structural members project below such a ceiling or a roof covering and the plan area of such projections exceeds 30% of the plan area of the room.

CC3.2   Notwithstanding the requirements contained in Table 2, where any structural member projects below the level of the ceiling or, where there is no ceiling, below the level of the roof covering, the height to such projection shall not be less than 2,1 m.

Table 2—Rooms and their dimensions

 

1          2         

Room or Space            Minimum height           

Bedroom            2,4 m over a floor area of at least 6 m2 with a clear height of at least 1,8 m at any point more than 0,75 m from the edge of the floor space. 

Any other habitable room in a dwelling house or dwelling unit            2,4 m over a minimum of 70% of the floor area, and not less than 2,1 m over the remaining floor area.    

All habitable rooms other than those listed above   2,4 m  

Passage or entrance hall            2,1 m  

Bathroom, shower-room, laundry or room containing a WC pan            2,1 m over any area where a person would normally be in a standing position.          

Open mezzanine floor which has an area not exceeding 25% of the area of the floor immediately below it            2,1 m above and below the mezzanine floor.   

 

CC4.   Floor area.—The overall plan area of any dwelling house shall be not less than 15 m2 in the case of any temporary building or 30 m2 in the case of any permanent building.

PART D

PUBLIC SAFETY

DD1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part D of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where change in level, the design of ramps and driveways, or access to swimming pools and swimming baths, as the case may be, complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

DD2.   Change in Level

DD2.1   Any ballustrade or wall provided to protect a change in level shall be subject to the requirements contained in regulation B1.

DD2.2   The edge of any balcony, bridge, flat roof or similar place more than 1 m above the adjacent ground or floor level shall be provided with a balustrade or parapet wall not less than 1 m in height, unless unauthorized access of persons thereto has been excluded by a physical barrier properly erected and maintained.

DD2.3   In the case of any interior balcony or any mezzanine floor such balcony or floor shall be provided with a balustrade or wall not less than 1 m in height: Provided that where such balcony or floor is used for public seating in rows such height may be reduced to not less than 800 mm opposite the seating in the front row.

DD2.4   Any balustrade or wall provided as protection at any change in level in any occupancy classified E2, E3, H1, H2 or H3 shall not have any opening that permits the passage of a 100 mm diameter ball: Provided that such protection in any occupancy not being an occupancy classified E2, E3, H1, H2, H3 or H4, shall consist of at least a handrail and one other rail midway between such handrail and the floor.

DD3.   Ramps.—In any building, not being a building classified H4, or on any site on which such building is situated, any—

            (a)            ramp or driveway used by motor vehicles shall have a gradient of not more than 1 in 25 within a distance of 5 m from any street boundary crossed by such ramp or driveway;

            (b)            ramp or driveway used by pedestrians shall have a gradient of not more than 1 in 8;

            (c)            ramp designed for use by both vehicles and pedestrians shall have a walkway not less than 1,2 m wide which shall be provided with a kerb not less than 150 mm high.

DD4.   Swimming Pools and Swimming Baths

DD4.1   The owner of any site which contains a swimming pool or swimming bath shall ensure by means of a wall or fence that no person can have access to such pool or bath from any street or public place or any adjoining site other than through a self-closing and self-latching gate with provision for locking in such wall or fence: Provided that where any building forms part of such wall or fence, access may be through such building.

DD4.2   Such wall or fence and any such gate therein shall be not less than 1,2 m high measured from the ground level, and shall not contain any opening which will permit the passage of a 100 mm diameter ball.

DD4.3   The constructional requirements of such fence or gate shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 1390.

PART E

DEMOLITION WORK

There are no deemed-to-satisfy requirements in this section.

PART F

SITE OPERATIONS

FF1.   General.—The requirements contained in regulation F11 of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the provision of sanitary facilities complies with the deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

FF2.   Sanitary Facilities

FF2.1  Sanitary facilities shall be so sited as not to be offensive and shall at all times be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition, and shall, unless they are of a permanent nature, be removed by such owner or person immediately such building work has been completed.

FF2.2   Sanitary facilities shall be provided at the rate of not less than one sanitary facility for every thirty (or part of that number) of the personnel concerned.

PART G

EXCAVATIONS

GG1.   General.—Subregulation G1 (1) contained in Part G of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where for any excavation on any site—

            (a)            measures to ensure the safety and stability of any property or service are the subject of an acceptable rational design carried out by or under the supervision of a professional engineer or other approved competent person; or

            (b)            such excavation complies with Part G of section 3 of SABS 0400.

GG2.   Excavations for Foundations

GG2.1   Any excavation more than 3 m deep shall be designed by a professional engineer or other approved competent person.

GG2.2   Any excavation for any foundation shall be taken down to firm natural ground: Provided that it shall be permissible to cast any foundation in filled ground if approved measures are taken to ensure the stability and the serviceability of the building.

GG2.3   The bottom of any excavation in ground other than rock shall be horizontal: Provided that where such a bottom is in the form of steps, such steps shall have horizontal and vertical surfaces.

GG2.4   Where any foundation is placed on solid rock, the bearing area shall be cleaned and, where necessary, so stepped or dowelled as to prevent lateral movement of such foundation.

GG2.5   Except where the foundation for any external masonry wall is placed on solid rock, the bottom of the excavation for such a foundation shall not be less than 300 mm below the level of the adjoining finished ground.

PART H

FOUNDATIONS

HH1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part H of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            any foundation is the subject of a rational design in accordance with the requirements contained in Part B; or

            (b)            the construction of any foundation complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

HH2.   Empirical Rules for Foundations

HH2.1   Any foundation constructed in accordance with subrules HH2.2 to HH2.8 inclusive shall not be used to support any wall forming part of the structural system of any building except where—

            (a)            such wall is placed centrally on such foundation;

            (b)            such wall is the wall of any building contemplated in rule KK2 of this code; and

            (c)            the soil supporting such foundation is not a heaving soil or shrinkable clay or a soil with a collapsible fabric.

HH2.2   Any such foundation shall be constructed in concrete having a compressive strength of not less than 10 MPa at 28 days, or be mixed in proportions by volume of 1 part of cement, 4 parts of sand and 5 parts of coarse aggregate.

HH2.3   Any continuous strip foundation shall have a thickness of not less than 200 mm: Provided that where the foundation is laid on solid rock such thickness shall not apply.

HH2.4   The width of any continuous strip foundation shall be not less than—

            (a)            600 mm in the case of a foundation to a load-bearing or free standing masonry wall or to a timber framed wall supporting a roof with Class A covering contemplated in subrule LL3.4 of this code; or

            (b)            400 mm in the case of a foundation to a non-load-bearing internal masonry wall or to a timber framed wall supporting a roof with Class A or Class C covering contemplated in subrule LL3.4 of this code.

HH2.5

            (a)            Where any strip foundation is laid at more than one level the higher portion of the foundation shall extend over the lower portion for a distance at least equal to the thickness of the foundation

            (b)            Any void between the top of the lower portion of such foundation and the underside of the higher portion shall be completely filled with concrete of the same strength as that required for such foundation.

HH2.6   Where any concrete floor slab is thickened to form a foundation—

            (a)            the thickness, including that of such floor slab, shall be not less than that required for a continuous strip foundation; and

            (b)            the width of the thickened portion below such floor slab shall be not less than that required for a continuous-strip foundation:

Provided that such thickening shall not be required under non-load-bearing timber-framed walls.

HH2.7

            (a)            Where any pier is built into or forms part of any wall the thickness of the foundation to such pier shall be the same as that required for such wall.

            (b)            The length and width of the foundation to such pier shall be such as to project by 200 mm at any point on the perimeter of such pier.

HH2.8

            (a)            The thickness of the foundation to any sleeper wall shall be not less than 150 mm.

            (b)            The length or width of the foundation to such sleeper pier shall be not less than 450 mm.

            (c)            The width of the foundation to such sleeper wall shall be not less than 300 mm.

PART J

FLOORS

JJ1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part J of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            any floor is the subject of a rational design in accordance with the requirements contained in Part B; or

            (b)            the construction of any floor complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

JJ2.   Floor Construction

JJ2.1   Any floor of any building shall comply with the fire requirements contained in rules TT5, TT6, TT7, TT11, TT19, TT39, TT41, TT50, TT51, TT52, TT53, VV3 and VV4, as the case may be.

JJ2.2   Any floor supported on ground or on filling shall be constructed of—

            (a)            impervious floor units not less than 40 mm thick and consisting of slate, bricks, natural stone or other approved material; or

            (b)            a concrete slab which shall have a compressive strength of not less than 10 MPa at 28 days, or be mixed in the proportions by volume of 1 part cement, 4 parts sand and 5 parts coarse aggregate, and the thickness of such slab shall be not less than 75 mm.

JJ2.3   Such filling material shall—

            (a)            consist of suitable material; and

            (b)            be applied in well compacted layers not more than 150 mm in thickness.

JJ2.4   Any concrete floor slab passing over or supported on foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with Part B as a suspended floor slab.

JJ2.5   Any water-resistant floor shall be constructed of concrete or other approved material.

JJ2.6   Any suspended timber floor shall be constructed in accordance with SABS 082.

JJ2.7   The underside of any floor boards other than those laid on a concrete slab shall be not less than 550 mm above the surface of the ground immediately below such floor boards.

JJ2.8   Provision for ventilation under suspended timber floors and the protection of ventilation openings shall be in accordance with SABS 082.

JJ2.9   The materials used in any suspended timber floor shall be in accordance with SABS 082.

JJ3.   Under-floor Membrane

JJ3.1   Any under-floor membrane shall be not less than 0,25 mm thick and shall be laid on a surface which shall not contain any sharp object which may perforate such membrane.

JJ3.2   Such membrane shall be turned up around the perimeter of and at least for the full thickness of any slab.

JJ3.3   Any joint in such membrane shall overlap by not less than 150 mm and shall be effectively sealed.

PART K

WALLS

KK1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part K of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            any wall, not being a balustrade, free standing or retaining wall—

            (i)            is the subject of a rational design indicating that such wall complies, in regard to strength and stability, with the requirements of Part B or where such wall complies with the requirements contained in provision KK3; and

            (ii)            complies with any relevant deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in provisions KK9, KK13, KK14, KK15 and KK16;

            (b)            any balustrade, free standing or retaining wall is the subject of an acceptable rational design or where such wall complies with the requirements contained in provision KK10, KK11 or KK12, as the case may be.

KK2.   Building Limitations for Empirical Design

KK2.1   Where any structural wall is to be erected in terms of rules KK3 to KK15 inclusive, and without detailed structural design calculations, the building of which such wall forms a part shall be subject to the limitations contained in subrule KK2.2.

KK2.2   The building referred to in subrule KK2.1 shall be not more than two storeys in height and shall be subject to the following limitations:

            (a)            The building plan-form and the layout of the intersecting mutually stabilizing walls that form part of such building shall be such as to provide a structure which is stable against the action of horizontal forces from any direction and shall consist of a rectangular, polygonal or circular cell or series of contiguous or intersecting cells.

            (b)            The span between supporting walls of a timber or metal roof truss, roof rafter or roof beam shall be not more than 10 m and the span between supporting walls of any first floor or roof slab shall be not more than 6 m.

            (c)            (i)            The dead load of the roof covering material shall be not more than 800 N/m2 of slope area for roofs other than concrete slabs.

            (ii)            Concrete roof slabs shall be not more than 175 mm in thickness if of solid construction or the equivalent mass if of voided construction.

            (d)            Concrete first-floor slabs shall be not more than 175 mm in thickness if of solid construction or the equivalent mass if of voided construction.

            (e)            In order to limit floor loading on first-floor space or on suspended ground-floor slabs the use of such floors shall be restricted to—

            (i)            detached dwelling houses and dwelling units;

            (ii)            bedrooms, wards, dormitories, bathrooms, rooms containing soil fixtures, kitchens, dining-rooms, lounges and corridors in educational buildings, hospitals, hotels and other institutional occupancies;

            (iii)            classrooms;

            (iv)            offices; and

            (v)            cafés and restaurants.

KK3.   Empirical Rules for Walls

KK3.1   Any wall used as a structural external or interal wall, non-structural internal wall, non-structural external wall panel, parapet wall, balustrade wall, free-standing wall or retaining wall (where such retaining wall is not part of a basement) shall comply with rules KK3 to KK17, as the case may be.

KK3.2   Where such wall is a structural wall and—

            (a)            is a masonry wall forming part of any building contemplated in rule KK2, such wall shall be constructed in accordance with the relevant rules in this Part and the materials, height and unsupported length of such wall shall conform to the relevant limits contained in rules KK4, KK5 and KK7 and; in the case of any cavity wall, such wall shall comply with the additional requirements applicable thereto contained in rule KK8; or

            (b)            is a timber framed wall such wall shall be constructed in accordance with SABS 082, and the height and unsupported length of such wall shall not exceed the limits given in Table 3.

KK3.3   Where such wall is a non-structural wall and—

            (a)            is an internal wall in any building, such wall shall comply with the relevant limits contained in rules KK4, KK5 and KK7;

            (b)            (i)            is a masonry external cladding or external infilling panel in any building not more than 25 m in height, the materials, height and unsupported length of such wall shall conform to the relevant limits contained in rules KK4, KK5, KK6 and KK7 and; in the case of any cavity wall, such wall shall comply with the additional requirements applicable thereto contained in rule KK8;

            (ii)            is a masonry parapet wall, the thickness of such wall shall be not less than one-fifth of its height; or

            (c)            is a timber framed wall such wall shall be constructed in accordance with SABS 082, and the height and unsupported length of such wall shall not exceed the limits given in Table 3.

KK4.   Materials

KK4.1   Masonry units used in the erection of walling shall comply with the requirements for compressive strength contained in Table 1.

KK4.2   Mortar used in the erection of a building shall comply with Table 1.

KK4.3   Materials used in any wall of timber framed construction shall be in accordance with SABS 082.

Table 1—Strength Requirements for Masonry Units and Mortar

 

1          2            3            4            5         

Wall type            Position            Minimum average compressive

strength, Mpa            Class of mortar required           

                        Solid

units     Hollow

units                

Structural other

than foundation             Single storey

building            External or Internal            7,0            3,5            II         

and retaining walls     Double storey

building            External or Internal            10,5

or *14,0            7,0            II         

Non-structural other             External                                              

than parapet,             Internal            7,0            3,5            II         

balustrade and freestanding walls                 7,0            3,5            III       

Free-standing            External or internal            10,5            7,0            II         

Foundation            Supporting single storey   7,0            3,5            II         

Foundation            Supporting double storey   10,5

or 14,0 7,0            II         

Parapet                        7,0            3,5            II         

Balustrade                        7,0            3,5            II         

Retaining                        10,5            7,0            II         

*See Table 2.  

 

KK5.   Wall Dimensions

KK5.1

            (a)            Where any wall is a masonry wall contemplated in Table 2 the height and unsupported length of such wall shall not exceed the relevant values given in Table 2;

            (b)            Where any wall is of timber framed construction, the height and unsupported length shall not exceed the values given in Table 3;

            (c)            All gable walls shall be adequately laterally supported.

KK5.2   Where effective lateral support is to be provided to any masonry wall by means of an intersecting masonry wall, such intersecting wall shall—

            (a)            be constructed of masonry units and mortar of strengths not less than those of the units and mortar used in the wall it supports;

            (b)            intersect the supported wall at an included angle of between 60° and 120°;

            (c)            have a height of not less than 80% of the height of the supported wall;

            (d)            have a thickness of not less than—

            (i)            the supported wall or load-bearing leaf of the supported wall where such supported wall is a structural wall;

            (ii)            45% of the thickness of the supported wall or 90 mm, whichever is the greater, where such supported wall is a non-structural wall, such thickness in the case of a cavity wall being deemed to be the sum of the thickness of the leaves of the wall; and

            (e)            have a length of not less than—

            (i)            10 times the thickness of the supported wall or load-bearing leaf of the supported wall where such supported wall is a structural wall;

            (ii)            one-fifth of the height of the wall panel to be supported or one-eight of the greatest distance between such intersecting wall and any other intersecting wall providing lateral support, whichever is the greater, where such supported wall is a non-structural wall,

                        and such length shall not include the thickness of the supported wall.

KK5.3   Where integral masonry piers are used in any non-structural masonry wall in order to provide resistance to flexure in the vertical plane, such piers shall—

            (a)            have a depth perpendicular to the length of any such wall, of three times the thickness of such wall where such depth includes the thickness of such wall;

            (b)            have a width along the length of any such wall of twice the thickness of such wall;

            (c)            be effective only if the height of such pier is not less than 80% of the height of any such wall.

Table 2—Permissible Dimensions of Masonry Walls in Buildings

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8         

Nominal wall thickness, mm  

 

 

Use of wall      

 

Max.

storey   Max.

height, ground

floor    

 

Max. unsupported    

Min. nominal unit

strengths, MPa

 

Min. class

of        

            in a building height,

m(1)×(5)            to top of external gable, m            length, m(2)     Solid

units     Hollow

units            mortar(4)        

90        Non-structural internal wall in any storey        

3,0      

NA     

6,0      

7,0      

3,5      

III       

            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m   

 

3,3      

 

NA     

 

note (3)           

 

7,0      

 

NP      

 

II         

            Wall providing lateral support in single storey building but carrying no gravity load other than its own weight      

 

 

 

3,0      

 

 

 

NA     

 

 

 

6,0      

 

 

 

7,0      

 

 

 

3,5      

 

 

 

II         

110      Non-structural internal wall in any storey        

3,3      

NA     

7,0      

7,0      

3,5      

III       

            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m   

 

3,3      

 

NA     

 

note (3)           

 

7,0      

 

3,5      

 

II         

            Structural wall in single storey building 

2,6      

4,0      

6,0      

7,0      

3,5      

II         

            Wall providing lateral support in single or double storey building but carrying no gravity load other than its own weight      

 

 

 

 

3,3      

 

 

 

 

NA     

 

 

 

 

7,0      

 

 

 

 

7,0      

 

 

 

 

3,5      

 

 

 

 

II         

140      Non-structural internal wall in any storey        

3,0      

NA     

7,0      

7,0      

3,5      

III       

            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m   

 

3,0      

 

NA     

 

5,0      

 

7,0      

 

3,5      

 

II         

            Structural wall in single storey building 

3,3      

5,0      

6,0      

7,0      

3,5      

II         

            Structural wall in double storey building

3,0      

7,5      

6,0      

10,5    

7,0      

II         

190      Non-structural internal wall in any storey        

3,5      

NA     

9,0      

7,0      

3,5      

III       

            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m   

 

3,3      

 

NA     

 

7,0      

 

7,0      

 

3,5      

 

II         

            Structural wall in single storey building 

3,3      

5,5      

8,0      

7,0      

3,5      

II         

            Structural wall in double storey building

3,3      

8,5      

8,0      

10,5    

7,0      

II         

230      Non-structural internal wall in any storey        

4,0      

NA     

9,0      

7,0      

3,5      

III       

            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m   

 

3,3      

 

NA     

 

8,0      

 

7,0      

 

3,5      

 

II         

            Structural wall in single storey building 

4,0      

6,0      

9,0      

7,0      

3,5      

II         

            Structural wall in double storey building

3,3      

8,5      

9,0      

10,5    

7,0      

II         

90–50–90 to

90–110–90 cavity wall            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m

Structural wall in single storey building

Structural wall in double storey dwelling unit without concrete slab roof     

 

3,3

 

3,0

 

 

 

2,8      

 

NA

 

4,5

 

 

 

7,5      

 

5,0

 

8,0

 

 

 

8,0      

 

7,0

 

7,0

 

 

 

14,0    

 

3,5

 

3,5

 

 

 

NP      

 

II

 

II

 

 

 

II         

110–50–110 to 110–110–110 cavity wall            External infilling and cladding to framed building to height of 25 m

Structural wall in single building

Structural wall in double storey building

 

3,3

 

3,0

 

3,0      

 

NA

 

5,0

 

8,0      

 

6,0

 

9,0

 

9,0      

 

7,0

 

7,0

 

14,0    

 

3,5

 

3,5

 

7,0      

 

II

 

II

 

II         

Note: NA means not applicable. NP means not permitted.

(1)        The storey height is measured from floor level to floor level or, in the case of the topmost storey, from floor level eaves and the maximum height of any wall panel may be assured to be equal to the relevant maximum permissible storey height.

(2)            Distance between intersecting walls, concrete columns or other members providing effective lateral support to wall and to which it is securely bonded or achored. Where wall panel is supported at one end only, the unsupported lengthht shall not exceed one-half of the tabulated length.

(3)        Only permitted as exterior leaf of cavity wall in which internal leaf is a structural concrete wall to which a masonry wall is tied as required for cavity walls by rule KK8.

(4)        See Table 1.

(5)        A parapet wall of 500 mm in height added to storey height is permitted.        

 

Table 3—Permissible Dimensions for Timber-framed Walls

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7         

 

Wall type            Stud size,

mm       Stud

spacing,            Maximum

panel length, m            *Max.

height, m            Max.

storey  

                        mm            Supported both ends            Supported one end                  height, m        

Structural            114 × 38        400            4,8            2,4            6,0            4,0      

            114 × 38        600            4,0            2,0            6,0            3,0      

            76 × 38        450            3,6            1,8            3,0            3,0      

Non-

structural            114 × 38        600            4,8            3,0                        4,0      

            76 × 38        600            4,2            2,4                        3,0      

*Maximum height means height to wall plate of highest storey or height to top of gable, if there is a gable.  

 

KK6.   External Masonry Cladding or Infilling Panels in Framed Buildings

KK6.1   Any external masonry cladding or infilling panel in a framed building shall be securely anchored to the structure.

KK6.2   Where the area of window openings in such panel is more than 20% of the face area of the panel calculated as the storey height multiplied by the unsupported length, the top of the panel shall be anchored to the structure in a manner that will permit relative vertical movement but restrain the wall against lateral movement.

KK6.3   Such cladding shall be supported on suitable beams, slabs or nibs at each storey and adequate provision shall be made for relative vertical movement between the masonry and the structure frame at the underside of such supports.

KK6.4   Movement joints shall be provided in such cladding at intervals of not more than 10 m to allow for relative horizontal movement.

KK7.   Columns and Piers in Walls.—Masonry columns and piers between openings in walls shall have a height not exceeding twelve times their least lateral dimension: Provided that the local authority may require the strength and stability of such column or pier to be substantiated by calculation or other acceptable means.

KK8.   Cavity Walls

KK8.1   Any cavity formed in an external masonry cavity wall shall be not less than 50 mm wide and not more than 110 mm wide.

KK8.2   Wall ties shall be installed in any cavity wall in an evenly distributed pattern, at a rate of 2,5 ties per square metre of the face area of such wall where the cavity is not more than 75 mm and at a rate of 3 ties per square metre of face area where the cavity is more than 75 mm in width.

KK8.3   Such wall ties shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 28.

KK9.   Foundation Walls

            (a)            The height of any foundation wall not acting as a retaining wall shall be not more than 1,5 m.

            (b)            Where a difference in ground level including backfill exists between the two sides of any foundation wall such difference shall be not more than 1,0 m.

            (c)            No foundation wall shall have a thickness less than the relevant value given in Table 4: Provided that such thickness shall not be less than—

            (i)            the thickness of the wall carried by such foundation wall; or

            (ii)            where the wall carried by such foundation wall is a cavity wall, the sum of the thicknesses of the leaves of such cavity wall.

Table 4—Minimum thickness of foundation walls

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9         

            Minimum thickness of wall, mm          

Type of foundation wall            Acting as a retaining wall      Not acting as a retaining wall    

            *Difference in ground level, mm            Height, mm      

            Less than

500      500

to

750      750

to

1 000   Less than

300      300

to

500      500

to

1 000   1 000

to

1 500  

Single leaf brick            External

Internal 140

        190

190      230

230      140

90        140

140      140

140      190

190     

Single leaf hollow block (cavities filled with concrete)            External

Internal 140

140      190

190      230

230      140

90        140

140      140

140      190

190     

Cavity walls (cavity filled to 150 mm below damp-proof course level)    

 

 

 

External           

 

 

 

190     

 

 

 

190     

 

 

 

230     

 

 

 

190     

 

 

 

190     

 

 

 

190     

 

 

 

190     

*For difference in ground level of more than 1 000 mm see Table 6.           

 

KK10.   Balustrade Walls

KK10.1   Any balustrade wall shall conform to the requirements contained in rule DD2.

KK10.2   Notwithstanding the requirements of KK10.1 in any building—

            (a)            solid masonry balustrade walls shall—

            (i)            be tied to reinforced concrete or brick columns or bonded into return walls or reinforced brick piers;

            (ii)            where deemed necessary, be provided with expansion joints spaced not more than 8 mm apart where such wall is supported by reinforced concrete or brick columns or reinforced brick piers and such expansion joints shall be formed in such columns or piers;

            (b)            return walls and reinforced brick piers shall be bonded into the structural beam or slab, and return walls shall not be spaced further apart than 6,0 m for 230 mm thick walls or 5,0 m for 190 mm thick walls or 4,0 m for 110 mm thick walls;

            (c)            brick balustrade walls shall be reinforced in the highest four bed joints with reinforcement consisting of two strands of galvanized steel wire not less than 3,5 mm in diameter, or two flat galvanized strips of equivalent area and such reinforcement shall have a lap of not less than 150 mm with the anchors to the supporting columns or piers.

KK11.   Free-standing Walls

KK11.1   (a)  Where any free-standing wall is a masonry wall—

            (i)            the courses of such wall shall be laid in any acceptable fully-bonded pattern;

            (ii)            the height, thickness and pier size of such wall shall conform to the relevant values given in Table 5 and any cavities in piers in a wall constructed of hollow units shall be filled with concrete.

(b)  In the case of a precast concrete fence the fixing of posts shall be in accordance with Appendix C of SABS 1372.

KK11.2   (a)  A damp-proof course shall not be installed in any free-standing wall.

(b)  Where moisture is likely to be encountered from ground water, high density bricks with a water absorption of not more than 7% shall be used in any free-standing wall up to 150 mm above ground level.

KK11.3   Where any wall consists of two or more sections of different thicknesses—

            (a)            the thickness of the top section shall be less than that of any lower section;

            (b)            the height of the top section shall not be greater than 80% of the maximum height given in Table 5 for the thickness in question;

            (c)            the sum of the heights of the various sections of such wall shall not be greater than the maximum height given in Table 5 for the thickest section of such wall; and

            (d)            any piers used in the thickest section of such wall shall extend, without reduction in size, to the top of such wall.

Table 5—Free-standing walls

 

1          2            3            4            5         

Nominal wall thickness, mm            Maximum height of wall above finished ground, m         Piers    

            Without

piers     With

piers            Nominal dimensions

(projection × width), mm            Max spacing (centre

to centre), m    

90        0,8            1,2            200 × 290      1,8      

110      1,0            1,4            240 × 230      1,8      

140      1,3            1,6            300 × 290      2,0      

190      1,5            2,0            400 × 290      2,5      

230      1,8            2,3            480 × 350      3,5      

290      2,2            2,6            400 × 290      4,5      

 

KK12.   Retaining Walls of Masonry

KK12.1   Any masonry retaining wall, not being a basement or foundation wall of a building, constructed in accordance with these rules shall not be erected in a position where the ground or fill which it retains may be subjected to superimposed loads, other than that from pedestrian traffic, within a distance equal to the height of the fill retained by such wall.

KK12.2   Where any structure is to be erected on top of such wall the wall shall be designed in accordance with regulation B1: Provided that a wire fence not greater in height than 1,5 m shall not be regarded as a structure.

KK12.3   There shall be no surcharge of fill behind such wall within a distance equal to the height of the wall.

KK12.4   Movement joints shall be provided at distances apart not exceeding 10 m.

KK12.5   Subsoil drainage shall be provided behind such wall together with sufficient weep holes in such wall to prevent the accumulation of water.

KK12.6   No horizontal damp-proof course of sheet material shall be used in any such retaining wall.

KK12.7   Any masonry retaining wall shall—

            (a)            be constructed of solid masonry units laid in any acceptable fully-bonded pattern;

            (b)            not exceed the limits for height, wall thickness and pier size contained in Table 6 and where piers are indicated in such table, any length of wall shall be supported at each end by such a pier and all such piers

Table 6—Retaining walls

 

1          2            3            4         

Nominal wall            Max height of fill            Piers    

thickness,

mm       to be retained,

m            Nominal dimensions (projection × width), mm            Max spacing (centre to centre), m    

190      0,8            No piers required  

            1,1            300 × 190      2,0      

            1,3            400 × 190      2,4      

230      0,9            No piers required  

            1,4            360 × 230      2,5      

            1,5            480 × 230      2,7      

290      1,1            No piers required  

            1,5            300 × 290      3,0      

390      1,4            No piers required  

 

KK13.   Roof anchoring

KK13.1   In the case of a wall erected of masonry units or of concrete a galvanized steel strap or wires shall be embedded in the wall at positions suitable for anchoring any timber roof truss, rafter or beam to such wall.

KK13.2   Such strap or wire shall extend into the wall to a depth of at least 300 mm in the case of a heavy roof (concrete or clay tiles or slate) or at least 600 mm in the case of a sheeted roof except that in the case where the depth of the masonry or in-situ concrete is less than 300 mm and 600 mm, respectively, such strap or wire shall extend as far as possible into such masonry or concrete.

KK13.3   (a)  Galvanized steel strap anchors shall be taken up over the top of the rafter or tie beam, bent down on the other side and nailed down from both sides, or galvanized roof ties shall be made up of two strands of wire which shall be taken up on either side of the rafter or tie beam, twisted together so as to have no slack, but not so as to overstrain the wire, and the free ends then nailed down to prevent untwisting.

(b)  Any roof truss, rafter or beam shall be fixed to any wall by using one of the following types of anchors:

            (i)            Type A: two strands of 4 mm galvanized steel wire;

            (ii)            Type B: 30 mm × 1,2 mm galvanized steel strap;

            (iii)            Type C: 30 mm × 1,6 mm galvanized steel strap.

(c)  For any roof truss, rafter or beam the type of anchor to be used shall be in accordance with Table 7.

Table 7—Types of anchor

 

1          2            3            4         

Roof slope,             Max roof truss,             Type of anchor required           

degrees            rafter or beam

pacing, mm            Light roof      Heavy roof     

Less than 15            760

1050

1350    A, B or C

B or C

C         Type A for all applications     

15 to 30            760

1050

1350    A, B or C

B or C

C                    

Greater than 30            Any            A, B or C                    

 

KK13.4   In the case of a building of timber framed construction, provision for the anchoring of any timber roof truss, rafter or beam to the wall shall be made in the manner described in SABS 082.

KK14.   Water penetration

KK14.1   Any external wall of any building shall be—

            (a)            capable of satisfying the relevant requirements of the rain penetration test contained in rule KK17; or

            (b)            a single leaf externally plastered block wall not less than 140 mm thick or a single leaf brick wall not less than 190 mm thick; or

            (c)            a cavity wall built of masonry; or

            (d)            a precast concrete wall forming part of a garage or garden store and having a nominal thickness not less than 40 mm providing that any joints in such wall are sealed; or

            (e)            a timber framed wall built in accordance with SABS 082.

KK14.2   Notwithstanding the requirements of subrule KK14.1(b) any local authority may, in areas of prolonged heavy wind-driven rain, require that any masonry external wall shall be a cavity wall, or a double leaf wall with the inner face of the outer leaf bagged and painted with two coats of approved sealer.

KK15.   Damp-proof course

KK15.1   Any wall or sleeper pier of a building shall be provided with a damp-proof course in such position and to an extent that will protect the wall against rising damp and the interior of the building against ingress of moisture from abutting ground.

KK15.2   (a)  Any material used as a damp-proof course shall conform to the relevant requirements contained in SABS 248, SABS 952 or SABS 298;

(b)  In any masonry wall a damp-proof course shall be installed—

            (i)            at the level of the top of a concrete floor slab resting on the ground; or

            (ii)            where applicable, below any ground floor timber beam or joist.

(c)  In any timber framed wall a damp-proof course shall be installed between the bottom plate of the wall and any foundation wall or concrete floor slab.

(d)  In the case of any solid masonry wall or timber framed wall any damp-proof course shall extend over the full thickness of such wall.

(e)  In the case of any masonry cavity wall—

            (i)            each leaf of such wall shall be provided with its own damp-proof course which shall extend over the full thickness of such leaf, in which case the cavity must extend 150 mm below the damp-proof course; or

            (ii)            each leaf of such wall shall be covered by a membrane which extends across the cavity provided that the position of the membrane at the inner leaf is higher than its position at the outer leaf; and

            (iii)            where necessary, weep holes to prevent build-up of water in the cavity shall be provided in the external leaf of every cavity wall, spaced not more than 1 m apart, in the masonry unit course immediately below the damp-proof course contemplated in paragraph (i) or in the masonry unit course immediately above the membrane contemplated in paragraph (ii).

( f )  No horizontal damp-proof course shall be installed less than 150 mm above the level of the adjacent finished ground.

(g)  Transverse joints in the damp-proof course shall be overlapped to a minimum distance of 150 mm and at junctions and corners to a distance equal to the full thickness of the wall or the leaf, as the case may be.

(h)  (i)  Where any part of any wall of a room is so situated that the ground will be in contact therewith it shall be protected by a vertical waterproof membrane or by a drained cavity which shall extend below the level of the floor of such room;

(ii)  drainage shall be provided at the base of such wall to prevent water accumulating there.

KK16.   Behaviour in fire

KK16.   Behaviour in fire.—Any wall shall comply with the relevant requirements for fire resistance, non-combustibility and, where appropriate, wall lining index set out in rules TT2, TT5, TT6, TT7, TT8, TT9, TT10, TT15, TT39, TT40, TT41, TT45, TT49, TT52 and subrules TT18.1 and TT19.1, as the case may be.

KK17.   Rain penetration test for walls

KK17.1   Test method.—The wall shall be thoroughly air-dry before being tested. In the case of a masonry or similar wall the inner surface may be lime washed or other means may be adopted to facilitate the detection of moisture which has penetrated through the wall. The portion of the outer surface under test shall then be continuously sprayed with water in the form of a finely divided spray distributed over the whole area under test at the rate of 40–50 mm depth of water per hour. Spraying shall be conducted in a still atmosphere and shall be continued for the minimum period required in terms of column 3 of Table 8 (depending upon the mean annual rainfall and the hourly mean wind speed for the locality concerned given in columns 1 and 2 of such table relative to such period in each case) or until the first signs of dampness appear on the inner surface of the wall if such signs appear before the expiry of such period. In the case of any timber framed wall the covering of such wall shall be removed after the required test period in order to ascertain whether any moisture has penetrated to the interior of such wall and if so, whether water has been retained within the interior.

KK17.2   Test criteria.—The test wall shall, in regard to rain penetration, be considered to comply with the requirements of regulation K2 where—

            (a)            no moisture has penetrated to the inner surface of the wall within the relevant minimum test period given in column 3 of Table 8, and

            (b)            in the case of a timber framed wall, there is no evidence of water having been retained within the cavity in the wall.

Table 8—Test period

 

1          2            3         

Mean annual

rainfall*, mm            Hourly mean

wind

speed*, m/s            Min

period, h          

            20            14       

More than            25            19       

† 1000 30            24       

            20            10       

600–1000            25            15       

            30            20       

            20            6         

200–600            25            11       

            30            16       

            20            2         

0–200  25            7         

            30            12       

*          See SABS 0160 Code of Practice for the general procedures and loadings to be adopted for the design of buildings (Appendices D and F).

          1000 is based on maximum rainfall of 1400 mm. Where the actual annual rainfall is known to exceed 1400 mm the figures for duration of test may be linearly extrapolated.   

 

PART L

ROOFS

LL1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part L of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            any roof or roof/ceiling assembly is the subject of a rational design in accordance with the requirements contained in Parts B and C and such roof or roof/ceiling assembly complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in provision LL4 and LL5 of this Part; or

            (b)            the construction of any roof contemplated in provision LL2 complies with the requirements contained in that rule.

LL2.   Empirical rules for the construction of roofs.—Where any roof is to be supported on the walls of any building, contemplated in rule KK2 of this code, such roof shall be constructed in accordance with rules LL3, LL4 and LL5.

LL3.1   The location and dimensions of any part of any roof shall be such that the minimum height requirements contained in Part C are satisfied.

LL3.2   Roof timbers shall comply with the requirements of the relevant of SABS 563, SABS 653, SABS 876, SABS 1089 or SABS 1245.

LL3.3   The requirements of subrules LL3.4 and LL3. shall apply only to single or double pitched Howe-type trusses, with a span of not more than 10 m, supported at heel joints only and having bays of equal lengths of not more than 1,5 m.

LL3.4   (a)  Where the roof covering is of the class given in column 1 of Table 1 the size of rafter (top chord), tie-beam (bottom chord) and the grade of timber to be used shall be selected from such table in such a way that the desired truss span does not exceed the relevant figure for maximum truss span given in column 4, 5 or 6, as the case may be.

(b)  All web members shall be not less than 38 mm × 114 mm Grade 4 timber.

(c)  Where rafter and tie-beam sizes are to be determined from Table 1, the slope of the roof shall—

            (i)            be not less than 15° nor more than 30° for Class A or Class C covering; and

            (ii)            be not less than 17° nor more than 35° for Class B covering.

Table 1—Maximum truss spans for various rafter and tie—beam sizes

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

Roof     Truss             Nominal           Max span, m           

covering            member           timber size,

mm       Timber

grade 4 Timber

grade 5 Timber

grade 8

Class A*            Rafter            38 × 114      3,1            4,6            5,8      

                        38 × 152      4,0            5,8            7,2      

                        38 × 228      6,1            8,5            10,0    

            Tie-beam    38 × 114      3,1            4,5            6,2      

                        38 × 152      4,5            6,4            8,3      

                        38 × 228      7,1            10,0            10,0    

Class B†            Rafter            38 × 114      6,0            9,0            10,0    

                        38 × 152      8,2            10,0            10,0    

                        38 × 228      10,0            10,0            10,0    

            Tie-beam    38 × 114      4,7            6,7            9,4      

                        38 × 152      5,9            8,5            10,0    

                        38 × 228      7,2            10,0            10,0    

Class C†            Rafter            38 × 114      6,2            9,0            10,0    

                        38 × 152      8,0            10,0            10,0    

                        38 × 228      10,0            10,0            10,0    

            Tie-beam    38 × 114      4,5            6,7            9,0      

                        38 × 152      5,9            8,7            10,0    

                        38 × 228      8,7            10,0            10,0    

*          Class A roof covering includes metal sheets and fibre-cement sheets.

          Class B roof covering includes concrete tiles, clay tiles or tiles of similar materials and thatch.

          Class C roof covering includes metal roof tiles.         

 

LL3.5   (a)  The number of connecting devices to be used at each intersection between two members at any heel joint or any splice in a truss shall be determined from Table 2.

(b)  In the case of any joint, other than a heel joint or splice, one 10 mm bolt plus four clinched 90 mm × 4 mm nails shall be used.

Table 2—Number of connecting devices required in heel joints and splices

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10       

 

Span,

m         3 (90 mm × 4 mm) nails

plus 10 mm bolts

as specified below  

16 mm bolts only      500 mm

toothed ring

connectors       

            No of bolts     No of bolts     No of connectors       

            Class

A         Class

B          Class

C         Class

A         Class

B          Class

C         Class

A         Class

B          Class

C        

3          2            1            2            2            1            1            1            1            1         

4          3            2            2            2            2            2            1            1            1         

5          3            2            3            2            2            2            2            1            2         

6          4            3            3            3            2            2            2            2            2         

7          5            3            4            3            2            3            2            2            2         

8          5            4            5            3            3            3            2            2            2         

9          6            4            5            4            3            3            3            2            2         

10        6            5            6            4            3            4            3            2            3         

Note: Class A, Class B and Class C refer to the class of roof covering given in Table 1.       

 

LL3.6   The centre-to-centre spacing of trusses relevant to the roof covering to be applied shall not exceed:

            (a)            Sheets, either metal or fibre cement            1 400 mm

            (b)            Concrete tiles, clay tiles of similar material            760 mm

            (c)            Metal tiles      1 050 mm

LL3.7   (a)  Timber roof trusses and other roof framing shall have all joints accurately cut, securely made and so fitted that the component parts are drawn tightly together.

(b)  Any trussed roof shall be provided with approved bracing to prevent buckling of rafters, tie-beams and long web members and to keep trusses upright.

(c)  No member of any truss shall have a length greater than sixty times its least dimension.

LL3.8   (a)  Where rafter construction is used in place of roof trusses and the roof covering is of the class given in column 1 of Table 3 the size of rafter and grade of timber to be used shall be selected from such table in such a way that the rafter span does not exceed the relevant figure for maximum rafter span given in columns 3 to 14, as the case may be.

(b)  Where rafter spacing differs from that in Table 3, intermediate values of maximum rafter span may be interpolated within the range of values given, for the relevant timber grade.

LL.3.9   (a)  Any purlin shall have a minimum nominal width and depth of 50 mm and 76 mm respectively and the maximum centre-to-centre spacing between purlins shall be 1,2 m.

(b)  All joints in adjacent purlins shall be staggered.

LL3.10   (a)  In the case of a timber framed building any roof truss, rafter or beam shall be securely fastened to the wall construction in accordance with SABS 082.

(b)  Every timber roof truss, rafter or beam supported by a wall erected of masonry units or of concrete shall be securely fastened to such wall by a galvanized steel strap or galvanized steel wires as prescribed in subrule KK13.1.

(c)  Any device used for the fastening of any roof covering shall be resistant to corrosion.

Table 3—Maximum spans for rafters

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10            11            12            13            14       

Roof

covering            Nominal timber size, mm      

Max rafter span, m           

                        Timber grade 4 Timber grade 6 Timber grade 8

                        Rafter spacing, mm            Rafter spacing, mm            Rafter spacing, mm    

                        600            760            1 050            1 400            600            760            1 050            1 400            600            760            1 050            1 400  

Class A            38 × 114      2,6            2,5            2,2            2,0            3,0            2,8            2,5            2,2            3,2            3,0            2,7            2,4      

and       38 × 152      3,5            3,3            3,0            2,7            4,0            3,7            3,3            3,0            4,3            4,0            3,6            3,2      

Class C            38 × 228      5,3            5,0            4,5            4,0            6,0            5,5            5,0            4,5            6,4            5,9            5,4            4,8      

            50 × 114      2,9            2,7            2,4            2,2            3,3            3,0            2,7            2,5            3,5            3,2            2,9            2,6      

            50 × 152      3,9            3,6            3,3            2,9            4,4            4,0            3,7            3,3            4,7            4,3            3,9            3,5      

            50 × 228      5,8            5,4            4,9            4,4            6,5            6,1            5,5            4,9            6,5            6,5            5,9            5,3      

            76 × 114      3,3            3,1            2,8            2,5            3,8            3,5            3,2            2,8            4,0            3,7            3,4            3,0      

            76 × 152      4,5            4,1            3,8            3,4            5,0            4,6            4,2            3,8            5,4            5,0            4,5            4,0      

            76 × 228      6,5            6,2            5,6            5,0            6,5            6,5            6,3            5,7            6,5            6,5            6,5            6,1      

Class B            38 × 114      1,8            1,6                               2,0            1,8                               2,1            2,0                              

            38 × 152      2,4            2,2                               2,7            2,5                               2,9            2,7                              

            38 × 228      3,6            3,3                               4,0            3,7                               4,3            4,0                              

            50 × 114      1,9            1,8                               2,2            2,0                               2,3            2,2                              

            50 × 152      2,6            2,4                               2,9            2,7                               3,1            2,9                              

            50 × 228      3,9            3,6                               4,4            4,1                               4,7            4,4                              

            76 × 114      2,2            2,1                               2,5            2,3                               2,7            2,5                              

            76 × 152      3,0            2,8                               3,4            3,1                               3,6            3,4                              

            76 × 228      4,5            4,2                               5,0            4,7                               5,0            5,0                              

 

 

Note: Class A, Class B and Class C refer to the class of roof covering given in Table 1. The maximum rafter spans given in Table 3 are based upon use in a roof having a slope of less than 10°. In the case of the greater slopes typical of Class B roof coverings the figures may prove conservative because strength rather than deflection becomes the criterion.          

 

LL4.   Fire resistance and combustibility.—The fire resistance of any roof/ceiling assembly complete with light fittings or any other component which penetrates the ceiling and the degree of non-combustibility of such assembly shall comply with the requirements contained in rule TT5, TT12, TT49 and VV3, as the case may be.

LL5.   Waterproofing

LL5.1   For the purpose of runoff of water any roof with a covering of one of the materials referred to in column 2 of Table 4 shall, subject to the limitations on roof slope contained in subrule LL3.4, be constructed to a slope not less than the relevant figure given in column 3 and such covering shall, where applicable, be provided with end laps not less than the relevant figure given in column 4 or 5, as the case may be.

Table 4—Minimum roof slopes and sheet end laps

 

1          2            3            4            5         

            Roof covering            Minimum             Minimum end lap, mm 

Class            Description       angleof slope

degrees            End laps

sealed   End laps

not sealed        

A            Corrugated metal, plastic or             5            250            Not permitted         

            glass-reinforced plastic sheets (including box rib)       11            150            250     

                        15            150            225     

                        17            150            200     

                        22            150            150     

            Corrugated fibre-cement sheets            11            200            30       

                        15            175            275     

                        17            150            250     

                        22            150            200     

                        26            150            150     

            Long span specialized metal sheets            5            As required by the local authority  

            Single length long span and specialized sheets   3                                 

B          Fibre-cement slates                                       

            i) with an approved underlay            10                               

            ii) without an approved underlay            17                               

            Single-lap concrete or clay interlocking tiles; concrete, clay plain tiles or shingles                                           

            i) with an approved underlay            17                               

            ii) without an approved underlay            26                               

            Natural slate on open battens                                    

            i) with an approved underlay            20                               

            ii) without an approved underlay            30                               

            Thatch: Thickness of 150 mm            45                               

            Thickness of 300 mm            35                               

C         Metal tiles                                         

            i) with an approved underlay            10                               

            ii) without an approved underlay            15                               

Note: When metal roof tiles are used over an existing roof, the existing roof slope may be retained.          

 

LL5.2   Flashing.—Flashing shall be used where a roof abuts against a wall or around any projection through a roof covering and at any other place where it is deemed necessary by the local authority.

LL5.3   Flat roofs.—(a)  Where a nominally flat roof of boarded or concrete construction is used it shall be provided with an impervious surface and laid to a fall of not less than 1 in 50.

(b)  Where a parapet wall abuts a covered flat roof the edges of the waterproofing material shall be turned up underneath corrosionproof metal cover flashing which is tucked into the horizontal joint of the brickwork at least two courses above the roof level.

(c)  Where any nominally flat roof is to be subjected to pedestrian or vehicular traffic any waterproofing membrane applied to it shall be protected against damage.

PART M

STAIRWAYS

MM1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part M of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            any stairway, including any wall, screen, railing or balustrade to such stairway, is the subject of a rational design in accordance with the requirements contained in Part B; and

            (b)            the construction of any stairway, including any handrail to such stairway, complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

MM2.   Dimensional requirements

MM2.1   The headroom at any point on any stairway shall be not less than 2,1 m, measured vertically from the pitch line, and the width of any stairway, measured to any enclosing wall or balustrade, shall be not less than 750 mm.

MM2.2   (a)  Any landing serving two flights in the same straight line shall—

            (i)            have a length of not less than 900 mm; and

            (ii)            have a width of not less than that of such flights.

(b)  No flight of stairs shall have a vertical rise greater than 3 m between landings.

(c)  No door shall open onto a stairway unless such door opens onto a landing and the width of such landing shall be not less than that of such door.

MM2.3   The rise of any step shall not exceed 200 mm.

MM2.4   The going and width of any tread shall be not less than 250 mm: Provided that where the stairway does not have solid risers, each tread shall overlap the next lower tread by not less than 25 mm.

MM2.5   The variation in the dimensions of the risers and the going of the treads in any one flight shall be not more than 6 mm: Provided that this requirement shall not be construed as prohibiting the use of tapered treads in the same flight as treads that are not tapered.

MM2.6   Any tapered tread not being a winder and not forming part of a spiral stairway shall—

            (a)            be so designed that, in respect of that part of the tread which is 400 mm from the narrower end of such tread, the going—

            (i)            shall comply with the requirement contained in subrule MM2.4; or

            (ii)            shall be equal, in the case of a flight containing both tapered and non-tapered treads, to the going of the non-tapered treads;

            (b)            have a minimum going of 125 mm;

            (c)            be so constructed that the angle between successive risers, measured in the horizontal plane, shall be constant; and

            (d)            comply with the requirement for variation in going contained in subrule MM2.5; where such variation is in each case measured at the same distance from the narrower end of each tread.

MM2.7   Stairways incorporating winders shall be permitted only in dwelling houses and within individual dwelling units, and at any point on such stairway—

            (a)            there shall be not more than three successive winders; and

            (b)            such winders shall not turn through more than 90°.

MM2.8   Any spiral stairway shall have a width of not more than 800 mm and such stairway shall not be used—

            (a)            as part of any emergency route;

            (b)            in any occupancy classified in terms of regulation A20 as A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, C1, E1, E2, F1, G1, H1, or H2.

MM3.   Prevention against falling.—(a)  Any flight of steps which contains more than three risers shall have protection on each side provided by a secure wall, screen, railing or balustrade which shall be not less than 1 m high and so erected that any such wall, screen, railing or balustrade in any occupancy classified E2, E3, H1, H2 or H3 shall not have any opening that permits the passage of a 100 mm diameter ball: Provided that such protection in any occupancy not being an occupancy classified E2, E3, H1, H2, H3 or H4, shall consist of at least a handrail and one other rail midway between such handrail and the stairtread.

(b)  (i)  Any flight of steps which contains more than five risers shall be provided with at least one continuous handrail extending the full length of such flight: Provided that this requirement shall not apply to any building classified H4, or within individual dwelling units in an occupancy classified H3.

(ii)  Such handrail shall be securely fixed to such wall, screen, railing or balustrade at a height of not less than 850 mm and not more than 1 m measured vertically from the pitch line to the upper surface of the handrail.

(iii)  Such handrail shall be of such a design and be so fixed that there shall be no obstructions on, above or near to it which may obstruct the movement of any hand moving along it.

(c)  (i)  Subject to paragraph (b) (i), any flight which is less than 1,1 m wide shall have a handrail on at least one side and where the width of any flight is more than 1,1 m, handrails shall be provided on both sides of such flight.

(ii)  Such handrails shall comply with the requirements contained in paragraphs (b) (ii) and (b) (iii).

MM4.   Fire requirements.—Any stairway shall comply with the requirements contained in rules TT5, TT7, TT19, TT20, TT21, TT22, TT23, TT24, TT25, TT26 and TT27, as the case may be.

PART N

GLAZING

NN1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part N of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the type, method of installation and marking of any glazing comply with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

NN2.   Installation of glazing

NN2.1   In any vertical glazing installation, any pane of glass and the fixing of such pane shall comply with the following requirements:

            (a)            Where such pane is to be exposed to the effect of wind, the thickness of such pane in relation to its area shall be in accordance with SABS 0137.

            (b)            Such pane shall be fixed in the frame in accordance with any suitable method described in SABS 0137 and such frame shall be so installed that it is capable of sustaining the total wind load for which such pane was designed.

            (c)            Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (a), the nominal thickness of a pane of glass shall be not less than that given in Table 1.

Table 1—Glass dimensions

 

1          2         

Nominal glass thickness, mm            Maximum size of pane, m2         

3          0,75    

4          1,5      

5          2,1      

6          3,2      

 

NN2.2   Any pane of glass, not being a door leaf contemplated in subrule NN2.3, which is to be installed without the support of a frame, shall be in accordance with SABS 0137.

NN2.3   Any door leaf made entirely of glass which is not fully contained in a frame shall be in accordance with SABS 0137: Provided that such requirements shall not apply to any cupboard door.

NN2.4   Where clear glazing is used and is not likely to be apparent to or suspected by any person approaching it, such glazing shall bear markings which shall render such glazing apparent to such person.

NN3.   Safety glazing

NN3.1   Any pane of glass installed in any door shall, where not made of safety glass, be not more than 1 m2 in area and shall have a nominal thickness of not less than 6 mm.

NN3.2   Where any window is not guarded by a barrier to reduce the possibility of persons coming into contact with any glass installed in such window—

            (a)            the sill of such window shall be at a level of not less than 300 mm from the floor; or

            (b)            any glass used in such window shall comply with the requirements of subrule NN3.1:

Provided that where, in the opinion of the local authority, the window is so placed that persons are likely on normal traffic routes to move directly towards such window, such sill shall be at a level of not less than 800 mm from the floor or any glass installed in such window shall comply with the requirements of subrule NN3.1.

NN3.3   Where any bath enclosure or shower cubicle is constructed of glass such glass shall be safety glass.

NN3.4   Any glass used in any shopfront and having an area of more than 1 m2 shall be safety glass.

NN3.5   Where glass is used in any wall or balustrade to a stairway or ramp and is less than 1,8 m above the pitch line of such stairway or the surface of such ramp or the surface of any landing forming part of such stairway or ramp, such glass shall be safety glass.

NN3.6   Where in these rules the use of safety glass is required, such requirement shall not be construed as meaning that other safety glazing materials complying with the requirements contained in SABS 1263 may not be used.

PART O

LIGHTING AND VENTILATION

OO1.   General.—The requirements contained in regulations O1, O2, O5 and O6 of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where lighting and ventilation systems, special provision of natural lighting, artificial ventilation plant and testing of artificial ventilation systems, as the case may be, comply with the deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

OO2.   Natural lighting

OO2.1   Where for the purposes of natural lighting a room is provided with one or more openings, such opening or openings shall be situated in an external wall, or in a suitable position in the roof of the building.

OO2.2   Where such opening is glazed it shall be glazed with transparent or approved translucent glazing material.

OO2.3   The area of such opening, or total area of such openings, inclusive of frames and glazing bars, shall be not less than 10% of the floor area of the room or rooms served by it, or 0,2 m2, whichever is the greater.

OO3.   Zone of space for natural lighting

OO3.1   Any opening contemplated in subrule OO2.1 shall have a zone of space outside it.

OO3.2   Such opening may be divided into portions, each with its own zone of space.

OO3.3   Any such zone of space shall be limited by parallel planes passing through and extending from the highest and lowest points of such opening and by parallel planes passing through and extending from the points of such opening that are furthest apart in the lateral direction.

OO3.4   Such parallel planes may extend from the building at any angle to the plane of the opening.

OO3.5   Where the planes bounding such zone of space are not at right angles to the plane of the opening the area of such opening shall for the purpose of subrule OO2.3 be deemed to be A × B, where A is the shortest distance between the planes bounding the top and bottom of such zone and B is the shortest distance between the vertical planes bounding the sides of such zone.

OO3.6   The available length of any zone of space shall be calculated either as half the sum of the lengths of the vertical planes or as half the sum of the length of the planes passing through the highest and lowest points of the opening, and the length of individual planes shall be measured as the distance along such plane from such opening to—

            (a)            any obstruction on the site which intersects such plane; or

            (b)            where there is no such obstruction, to any statutory building line on an adjoining site; or

            (c)            where there is no such obstruction or line, to the boundary between the site and any adjoining site: Provided that where a zone extends across a street reserve the statutory building line and the boundary contemplated in paragraphs (b) and (c) respectively, shall be taken to mean the statutory building line and street boundary of the site opposite the site concerned.

OO3.7   The available length of any zone of space when calculated in accordance with subrule OO3.6 shall be not less than 0,5 m when measured to a boundary line or not less than 1 m when measured to a building line and, notwithstanding the requirements contained in subrules OO3.8 and OO3.9, shall not be required to be more than 8 m.

OO3.8   Where none of the planes bounding a zone of space intersects an obstruction on the site, the available length of such zone shall be not less than that contained in Table 1, where H represents the distance measured vertically from the head of the opening to the top of the wall containing the opening.

OO3.9   Where one or more of the planes bounding a zone of space intersects an obstruction on the site the available length of such zone shall be not less than that contained in Table 1, where H represents the height of the obstruction above the level of the head of the opening concerned: Provided that the shortest horizontal distance between the opening and such obstruction shall be not less than 1 m.

Table 1—Length of zone of space

 

1          2         

Type of room served by opening            Length of zone of space  

Habitable room in dwelling house, dwelling unit or a building used for a residential or institutional occurpancy            1/3H   

Any other habitable room            1/5H   

Bathroom, shower or room containing a WC pan or urinal    1/10H 

 

OO3.10   Where any projection from the surface of the wall above any opening contemplated in subrule OO2.1 is likely significantly to reduce the amount of light reaching such opening—

            (a)            at least two-thirds of the plan area of the zone of space outside such opening shall have an unrestricted vertical shaft extending upwards from the plane bounding the top of such zone; and

            (b)            no opaque projection over such zone shall extend to a line closer than 1 m from any obstruction or lateral site boundary intersecting such zone.

OO4.   Natural ventilation

OO4.1   Where for the purposes of natural ventilation any room is provided with an opening or openings—

            (a)            the position of such opening or openings in relation to each other and to any internal doors to such room shall be such as to enable such room to be ventilated; and

            (b)            the arrangement and sizes of such openings in a garage shall be such that the quantity of noxious fumes or gases in such garage does not exceed a safe limit.

OO4.2   Every such opening shall be either—

            (a)            an opening or door in an external wall; or

            (b)            an openable glazed window in an external wall or in a suitable position in the roof; or

            (c)            an opening in the ceiling or at the top of an internal or external wall, connected directly to a vertical ventilating flue.

OO4.3   The total area of any opening, door or openable glazed window contemplated in subrule OO4.2 (a) or (b) shall be not less than 5% of the floor area of the room, or 0,2 m2, whichever is the greater.

OO4.4   The total area of any opening contemplated in subrule OO4.2 (c) shall be not less than 2% of the floor area of the room.

OO5.   Natural lighting and ventilation of rooms opening onto enclosed balconies, galleries, verandahs and courts

OO5.1   Any room having an opening which opens onto any roofed and enclosed balcony, gallery or verandah, as the case may be, shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements contained in regulation O1 where such opening satisfies the requirements contained in rule OO1 and—

            (a)            a portion of the outer wall of any such balcony, gallery or verandah has openings complying with subrule OO2.2 and the area of such openings is at least 10% of the combined floor area of the room concerned and the balcony, gallery or verandah;

            (b)            any such balcony, gallery or verandah is provided with doors or other openable areas having an area of at least 5% of the combined floor area of the room concerned and the balcony, gallery or verandah; and

            (c)            that portion of the outer wall of such balcony, gallery or verandah in which openings contemplated in paragraphs (a) and (b) are formed is provided with a zone of space complying with the requirements contained in rule OO3.

OO5.2   Any room having an opening which opens onto any enclosed and covered or partially covered court shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements contained in regulation O1 where such opening satisfies the requirements contained in rules OO2, OO3 and OO4 and—

            (a)            the cover to such court is adequately translucent; and

            (b)            the plan area of such cover is not more than one-third of the plan area of such court; or

            (c)            the plan area of such cover is more than one-third of the plan area of such court but additional openings from such court to the outside air have been provided to the extent that the total area of all such openings is equal to at least two-thirds of the plan area of such court;

Provided that where such court is to be occupied for any purpose, whether or not any room has an opening which opens onto such court, such cover shall be translucent and—

            (i)            additional openings shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (c); or

            (ii)            such court shall be provided with artificial ventilation in accordance with rule OO7.

OO6.   Artificial lighting.—Where in any building the requirements for lighting contained in regulation O1 are to be satisfied by the installation of a system of artificial lighting such lighting shall be in accordance with the relevant recommendations contained in SABS 0114: Part I.

OO7.   Artificial ventilation

OO7.1   (a)  Outside air used in any artificial ventilation system shall be introduced to the system from an inlet positioned to ensure that such air is as far as possible free from local contamination.

(b)  Where it is not possible to so position such inlet a filter which will reduce contamination of such air to an acceptable level and prevent discharge into rooms of dust or fluff that has accumulated in ducts shall be fitted to such inlet.

OO7.2   The exhaust outlets for air which has been used for artificial ventilation purposes shall be so located and arranged as to ensure that such air does not cause a nuisance nor contaminate any air which is likely to be drawn into or ventilate any existing building.

OO7.3   Exhaust outlets or air inlets forming part of any artificial ventilating system shall be protected by a substantial grille or screen through which a 12 mm diameter sphere cannot pass.

OO7.4   Where an artificial ventilation system has been connected to a room—

            (a)            designed to be occupied by persons suffering from infectious or contagious diseases;

            (b)            contemplated in regulation O1 (3) (b); or

            (c)            containing a WC pan or urinal or used as a sauna, darkroom or refuse storage room;

air from such room shall not be recirculated to or permitted to pass into any other room, whether or not such room falls into the same occupancy category, and all such air shall be discharged or exhausted to the outside air.

OO7.5   (a)  In any room contemplated in regulation O1 (3) (b) where heat, dust, gas, vapour or volatile matter is liberated in one or more localized areas, each such area shall be provided with an extract facility which shall exhaust air from such area at a rate that will ensure that such heat, dust, gas, vapour or volatile matter is effectively removed through such facility and discharged to the outside air.

(b)  Any such extract facility shall be so constructed that any condensate deposited upon the internal surface of such facility cannot run or drip from such surface back onto such area.

OO7.6   (a)  The artificial ventilation system serving any parking garage shall be separate from any other artificial ventilation system: Provided that contaminated air exhausted from such garage may be circulated through a transformer, machine or similar service room in order to dissipate heat from machines before passing to the outside air.

(b)  The arrangement and sizes of air inlets and outlets in every garage required in terms of this Part to be artificially ventilated shall be such as to ensure that the level of noxious or toxic fumes or gases at any location in such garage does not rise above a safe limit.

OO7.7   (a)  Where any kitchen contains an extraction facility for the purpose of extracting heat or vapour such facility shall, where it is to be subjected to an atmosphere containing grease in suspension, be fitted with a means which will filter the air entering such facility to prevent such grease being carried into the system: Provided that where such means cannot be fitted an easily accessible trap or settling chamber shall be installed in the duct leading from such facility.

(b)  Provision shall be made at every change in direction of such duct for easy inspection and for cleaning of the interior of the duct.

(c)  Any such extraction facility and the artificial ventilation system required therefor shall be constructed or lined throughout with a non-combustible material.

(d)  Any such extraction facility shall not be connected to any other extraction facility or artificial ventilation system.

OO7.8   Any self-contained artificial ventilation unit installed in the wall of any building where such wall abuts on a public street or place shall be installed and operated in such a way that condensate formed by the operation of the unit is prevented from dripping onto such street or place by means of—

            (a)            the use of a unit which disposes of all condensate by evaporation; or

            (b)            arranging for the condensate from the unit to be collected and disposed of into a drain or stormwater drain or in such manner as will be acceptable to the local authority.

007.9   The arrangement and sizes of air inlets and outlets in any room which is artificially ventilated shall be such as to ensure an even and uniform distribution and circulation of air throughout the occupied zone of the room without the creation of an air velocity of more than 0,5 m/s.

007.10   (a)  Any room or space which is required to be artificially ventilated and is used for an occupancy contemplated in column 1 of Table 2 shall be supplied with outside air at a rate not less than that contemplated in columns and 4 of such table: Provided that—

            (i)            where no figure is given in column 2, the rate given in columns 3 and 4 shall be used; or

            (ii)            where air has been recirculated through an approved filter capable of removing tobacco smoke particles, or the local authority is satisfied that smoking will not take place in such room or space or in any room or space from which the air has been recirculated, the rate may be reduced to that given in columns 3 and 4 of such table;

            (iii)            where airborne toxic substances will be released into the room or space concerned, extract ventilation which is able to remove such substances shall be provided;

            (iv)            in the case of a kitchen or any room containing a bath, shower, WC pan or urinal in any dwelling unit or private dwelling house or any such room serving any bedroom, borrowed air may be used in lieu of outside air and the system shall be capable of supplying the required quantity of air under conditions of intermittent use;

            (v)            in the case of any motor car repair garage, photographic darkroom, working area in a commercial dry-cleaning establishment, private or central kitchen in a hotel, motel, resort, dormitory and similar facilities or any wash-room or room containing a WC pan or urinal located in an office-type occupancy or intended for use by the public the extract ventilation quantity shall exceed the supply air quantity to ensure negative pressure in the area concerned;

            (vi)            in the case of any laboratory, any fume cupboard provided shall be capable of removing all fumes, gas, vapour or volatile matter likely to be generated in such cupboard; and

            (vi)            in the case of a ticket kiosk situated in a parking garage, the air supply to such kiosk shall be sufficient to create positive pressure within the kiosk.

(b)  For the purpose of this subrule the number of persons shall be based upon the requirements contained in regulation A21.

Table 2—Air Requirements

 

1          2            3            4         

            Minimum air requirement, l/s            

Occupancy      

Smoking            Filtere or

non-

smoking            Remarks          

Public halls                                          

Assembly halls            7,5            3,5            Air supply required per person       

Churches            7,5            3,5                  

Theatres (including lobbies and auditoria)            7,5            3,5                  

Cinemas            7,5            3,5                  

Dry-cleaners and laundries                                       

Commercial dry-cleaners (working areas)                        120,0            Air supply required per person       

Storage/collection area 7,5            5,0                  

Laundries            7,5            5,0                  

Educational buildings                                              

Classrooms                        7,5            Air supply required per person       

Laboratories                        7,5                  

Libraries                        6,5                  

Food and eating facilities (public)                                    

Dining-rooms and restaurants            7,5            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Cafeterias            7,5            5,0                  

Bars and cocktail lounges            7,5            5,0                  

Kitchens            17,5            17,5                

Photographic darkrooms                        10,0            Air supply required per person       

Dwelling units                                      

Kitchens            50,0            50,0                

Other living areas    5,0            5,0            Air supply required per room         

Bathrooms and shower-rooms            25,0            25,0                

Rooms containing WC pan or urinal            25,0            25,0                

Shops                                      

Malls, arcades, warehouses            7,5            7,5            Air supply required per person       

Sales floors, showrooms, dressing rooms            7,5            7,5                  

Sports and amusement facilities                                               

Ballrooms and discos   7,5                               

Bowling alleys (seating area)            7,5                        Air supply required per person       

Playing area (gymnasiums, etc)                  10,0                

Locker-rooms            7,5            7,5                  

Spectator areas            5,0                               

Health spas and slimming salons                        7,5                  

Garages                                               

Parking garages            7,5            7,5            Air supply required per m2 of floor area     

Ticket kiosks            5,0            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Motor car repairs  10,0            10,0            Air supply required per m2 of floor area     

Hotels, motels, resorts, dormitories and similar facilities                                     

Lobbies            7,5            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Conference rooms   7,5            5,0                  

Assembly rooms   7,5            5,0                  

Bedrooms            7,5                        Air supply required per person       

Living-rooms (suites) 7,5                               

Central kitchens            17,5            17,5            Air supply required per person       

Private kitchens            50,0            50,0            Air supply required per person       

Libraries                                              

General                        6,5            Air supply required per person       

Bookstock                        3,5                  

Offices                                    

General            7,5            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Meeting and waiting spaces            7,5            5,0                  

Conference and board rooms            10,5            5,0                  

Cleaner’s rooms               1,0            Air supply required per m2 of floor area     

Stages, TV, radio and movie film            7,5            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Rooms containing baths, showers, WC pans or urinals                                      

Serving a dwelling unit or any bedroom            25,0            25,0            Air supply required per room         

All others            20,0            20,0            Air supply required per bath, shower, WC pan, urinal stall or 600-mm of urinal space     

Transportation                                     

Waiting-rooms, ticket and baggage areas, corridor and gate areas, platforms, concourses            7,5            5,0            Air supply required per person       

Smoking-rooms   20,0                        Air supply required per person       

Occupancies other than those listed above            As determined by the local authority          

Note: The use of a dash in the above table signifies no requirement.    

 

PART P

DRAINAGE

PP1.   General.—Regulation P2 shall be deemed to be satisfied where any drainage installation complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

PP2.   Materials, pipes, fittings and joints.—In any drainage installation any type of joint between pipes or between such pipes and fittings shall—

            (a)            be appropriate to the materials of which such pipes and fittings are made;

            (b)            remain watertight to the standard set in rule PP26 under normal working conditions or where there may be any differential movement between such pipes and any building or ground or other construction forming part of the drainage installation; and

            (c)            be able to withstand an internal water pressure of 50 kPa and an external water pressure of 30 kPa without leaking.

PP3.   Sanitary fixture standards

PP3.1   Any sanitary fixture shall be made of impermeable, non-corrosive material, shall have a smooth and readily cleanable surface and shall be so constructed and fitted as to discharge through a trap, into a soil pipe or waste pipe, as the case may be.

PP3.2   The water supply outlet to any waste fixture shall be situated not less than 20 mm above the flood-level rim of such fixture: Provided that this requirement shall not apply to any bidet.

PP4.   Standards for WC pans

PP4.1   Any WC pan shall be so designed and manufactured as to comply with the relevant requirements contained in SABS 497: Provided that any WC pan which has a horizontal outlet spigot where the connection between such spigot and the soil pipe connected to it is made by an adaptor which can provide a slope downwards at a gradient of not less than 1 in 40 towards the inlet of such soil pipe may be installed in any building.

PP4.2   Any WC pan of the pedestal type shall be manufactured as a single unit and where such pan is installed in a position so that the joint between its outlet spigot and the soil pipe into which it discharges, is concealed, such pan shall be installed in such a manner that there is ready access to such joint.

PP4.3   Any WC pan of the wall-mounted type shall be manufactured as a single unit and shall be so constructed that such pan can—

            (a)            be firmly attached to a wall; or

            (b)            be rigidly supported by a bracket.

PP4.4   Any WC pan of the squat type may be manufactured in two parts where the joint between the upper and lower parts is situated above the normal level of the water seal in the trap of such pan.

PP4.5   Any WC pan shall be served by its own separate flushing device.

PP4.6   Any seat associated with any WC pan shall have a smooth non-absorbent surface and be held in place by fasteners made of corrosion resistant material.

PP5.   Standards for urinals

PP5.1   (a)  Any urinal shall be of either one or more slabs, or a stall, trough, bowl or other suitable receptacle which shall have a smooth and readily cleanable non-absorbent surface.

(b)  Where a slab or trough type urinal is provided a 600 mm length of such slab or trough shall be deemed to be equivalent to one urinal stall or bowl.

PP5.2   Any urinal or group of urinals shall for the purposes of subrule PP5.3 be provided with a flushing device: Provided that this requirement shall not apply with regard to any urinal that is specifically designed and constructed as a flushless urinal.

PP5.3   Any urinal shall be so designed and installed that all of its surface, within its perimeter, from a distance of not more than 100 mm below the outlet of its flushing device, is cleaned by the water discharged from the device.

PP5.4   When any urinal is made of stainless steel it shall be made as a single unit and shall be so constructed that—

            (a)            any weld shall have a degree of corrosion resistance not less than that of the parent metal;

            (b)            any crevice on the exposed side of joints shall be filled with weld metal;

            (c)            any removable corner shall be attached by means of a corrosion resistant fastener.

PP5.5   The channel fitted to any slab or stall type urinal shall be graded with a fall of not less than 1 in 100 and the outlet to this channel shall—

            (a)            serve not more than 4,8 m of slab urinal, or 8 stall units; and

            (b)            be provided with a trap, which shall be provided with a corrosion resistant grating designed to retain solid matter without obstructing the flow of liquids: Provided that any such grating shall not be installed in the case of any trap which serves any siphonic urinal.

PP5.6   Any joint between any parts of a urinal shall be urine resistant and watertight.

PP5.7   (a)  Any urinal of the wall-mounted type shall be so constructed that it shall discharge by gravity and have the following minimum dimensions:

            (i)            a vertical distance of 300 mm from the outlet of the bowl to the lowest point of discharge of flushing water into the urinal;

            (ii)            an external width of 300 mm at the widest point;

            (iii)            a horizontal distance of 230 mm from the front of the lip to the wetted face immediately opposite the centre point of such lip; and

(b)  such urinal shall be manufactured as a single unit and where it is a urinal flushed by wash-down action it shall be provided with a separate trap or where it is flushed by siphonic or jet action it shall have an integral trap.

PP5.8   Any urinal having dimensions less than those contained in subrule PP5.7 (a) may be permitted if a trapped floor drain is installed in the same room.

PP5.9   Any flushless urinal shall—

            (a)            be constructed of inert material with a smooth finish and a high resistance to water absorption;

            (b)            be so constructed that the inner surface of any bowl and outlet is smoothly curved to ensure that any flow of urine into any trap is unimpeded and cannot pond in any such urinal;

            (c)            have waste fittings and discharge piping made of plastic material or other inert material resistant to corrosion.

PP6.   Flexible connectors for WC pans

PP6.1   Any flexible connector which is used to connect the outlet spigot of a WC pan to any soil pipe shall not permit any leakage of soil water at the joint.

PP6.2   Such connector shall have a maximum water absorption of 2% and shall be flexible to accommodate any dimensional variations between, and any surface irregularities of, such spigot and pipe.

PP6.3   The requirements contained in subrules PP6.1 and PP6.2 shall be deemed to be satisfied if such connector complies with the requirements contained in SABS 974.

PP7.   Electrical sanitary fixtures

PP7.1   Any clothes-washing machine or dish-washing machine which is permanently connected to any drainage installation shall discharge through a trap into a waste pipe.

PP7.2   No person shall incorporate into any drainage installation a mechanical food-waste or other disposal unit or garbage grinder which has a power capacity in excess of 500 W unless—

            (a)            the owner of the building has registered such unit or grinder with the local authority or it is shown on an approved plan and such local authority is satisfied that the working of any sewerage or sewage treatment system shall not thereby be impaired; and

            (b)            such unit or garbage grinder has been installed in compliance with the relevant requirements contained in the compulsory specification for the safety of electrical appliances published in Government Notice 466 of 13 March 1981 and is of a type which will not cause such impairment.

PP7.3   Any food-waste disposal unit shall discharge through a trap having a depth of water seal of not less than the relevant depth given in the rules contained in this Part.

PP7.4   Where any food-waste disposal unit is—

            (a)            installed in contravention of the provisions of these rules; or

            (b)            is not functioning efficiently or is impairing the work of any part of the sewerage system, the local authority may serve a notice on the owner of such unit, or the owner or the occupier of the building in which such unit is installed, requiring him to remove or alter such unit, or to alter the manner of its installation, by a date and on such conditions as it may determine.

PP7.5   The owner shall notify the local authority within 14 days of the removal of any registered unit or grinder.

PP8.   Macerator type sanitary-towel disposers

            (a)            In any room containing sanitary fixtures designated for the use of females, suitable means shall be provided for the disposal of sanitary towels.

            (b)            Any macerator type sanitary-towel disposer shall discharge through a trap into a soil pipe.

PP9.   Sewage lifts

PP9.1   Where any building is at such a level in relation to the nearest connecting sewer that any drainage installation serving such building cannot discharge into such connecting sewer by gravitation the owner of such building shall, at his own cost, install an approved appliance and where required by the local authority, standby facilities, for the purpose of raising sewage to a level which will enable it to gravitate to such connecting sewer.

PP9.2   Such appliance shall be operated and maintained at the cost of such owner and shall be so designed and located as not to be offensive or to be injurious or dangerous to health.

PP10.   Conservancy tanks, septic tanks and french drains

PP10.1   Any conservancy tank shall, subject to the clearing services provided by the local authority in question—

            (a)            have a capacity as prescribed by such local authority;

            (b)            be constructed with means of access for cleaning;

            (c)            be provided with a means for clearing as prescribed by such local authority.

PP10.2   Any conservancy tank or septic tank to be used on a site for the reception of sewage shall—

            (a)            be so designed and constructed that it will be impervious to liquid;

            (b)            be so sited—

            (i)            that there will be a ready means of access for the clearing of such tank;

            (ii)            as not to endanger the structure of any building or any services on the site; and

            (c)            be so designed and sited that it is not likely to become a source of nuisance or a danger to health.

PP10.3   Any septic tank shall, subject to the requirements contained in subrule PP10.7, discharge to a french drain.

PP10.4   Any septic tank shall—

            (a)            where it is to serve a dwelling house or dwelling unit be of a designed capacity of not less than 1,7 m3 and be capable of receiving one day’s sewage flow as given in Table 1;

            (b)            where it is to serve any building not being a dwelling house or dwelling unit, be of a designed capacity not less than 3 times the daily flow from such building, using the per capita sewage flow given in Table 2 or such other flow as may be determined by the local authority where not so given;

            (c)            be so constructed that—

            (i)            it is provided with a means of access for the purpose of emptying and cleaning; and

            (ii)            the depth in such tank below the outlet invert is not less than 1,0 m and there is an airspace of not less than 200 mm between the surface of the liquid contained therein and the underside of the top cover of such tank.

Table 1—Sewage flows from dwelling houses or dwelling units

 

1          2         

Number of bedrooms            Sewage flow, litres per day      

2          700     

3          900     

4          1100   

5          1400   

 

Table 2—Sewage flow from buildings not being dwelling houses or dwelling units

 

1          2         

Type of establishment            Sewage flow, litres per person per day

Boarding houses  110     

(Additional kitchen wastes for non-resident boarders)            23       

Hotels without private baths            110     

Hotels with private baths            140     

Restaurants (toilet & kitchen wastes per patron)            20       

Tourist camps or caravan parks with central bathhouse            90       

Day schools            37       

Day workers at offices per shift            90       

Hospitals            500     

Factories (litres per person per shift, exclusive of industrial wastes) 140     

Swimming baths    9         

Motels (per bed)     90       

Drive-in theatres (per car space)            9         

 

PP10.5   No industrial effluent shall be allowed to flow into any septic tank.

PP10.6   Any french drain which is to receive effluent or any evapotranspirative bed shall—

            (a)            be so constructed and located as not to cause the pollution of any spring, stream, well or other source of water which is used or is likely to be used for drinking, domestic or kitchen purposes;

            (b)            have a capacity, be so constructed and contain suitable material so as to adequately receive and dispose of any effluent flowing into it; and

            (c)            be not less than 3 m from any building or boundary of the site on which it is situated.

PP10.7   (a)  The ground in which it is proposed to construct a french drain shall be tested for percolation in accordance with the method contained in rule PP28.

(b)  Where, after testing in accordance with rule PP28, the site has been found suitable for the use of a french drain, such french drain shall be constructed to such dimensions that the rate of application of effluent to the infiltration area, within such french drain, does not exceed the values given in column 2 of Table 3 as appropriate to the percolation rate given in column 1 of such table.

Table 3—Rates of percolation and effluent application

 

1          2         

Percolation rate: Average

time for 25 mm fall

of test water level,

minutes Rate of application of

effluent to subsoil infiltration

areas, litres per m2 of french

drain wall area per day

0–3      108 max     

3–5      108–100     

6–10    99–80 

11–15  79–65 

16–20  64–53 

21–26  52–40 

27–30  39–33 

Over 30            Not permitted         

Note: Intermediate values to be obtained by interpolation.    

 

(c)  No french drain shall be constructed in any ground where—

            (i)            such ground has a percolation rate exceeding 30 minutes;

            (ii)            any effluent may flow out due to the contours of or the strata forming such ground;

            (iii)            the site to be affected by such effluent is of insufficient size to accommodate the soaking away of the effluent;

            (iv)            the level of the water table is or may be such as to prevent adequate percolation; or

            (v)            any site may be affected by the presence of such french drain.

PP10.8   An evapotranspirative bed may, subject to the provisions of section 10 of the Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act No. 103 of 1977), be installed instead of a french drain.

PP11.   Discharges from washing areas

PP11.1   (a)  Any building used as a stable, garage, cowshed, dairy, kennel, butchery, abattoir or any vehicle washing area or other similar area that requires regular cleansing which produces waste water or soil water shall be connected to a drain which shall serve such building or area;

(b)  such area shall be paved with an approved impervious material, and be graded to a gully which shall be fitted with a removable grating and be connected to an approved silt trap, grease trap, petrol and oil interceptor or two or more of the foregoing.

PP11.2   Such area shall—

            (a)            be roofed over; and

            (b)            be surrounded by a kerb not less than 100 mm high or it shall be elevated above the immediately surrounding ground level by not less than 100 mm.

PP12.   Discharges from swimming baths, swimming pools, fountains or reservoirs

PP12.1   Where any swimming bath, swimming pool, fountain or reservoir is required by the owner thereof to have an overflow to lead away excess rainwater, such overflow shall be designed and constructed to discharge—

            (a)            onto the site upon which such bath, pool, fountain or reservoir is situated; or

            (b)            into an approved surface channel, stormwater drain or natural watercourse.

PP12.2   Any swimming bath, swimming pool, fountain or reservoir shall be so designed and constructed that the water from the backwashing of any filter is discharged onto the site upon which such bath, pool, fountain or reservoir is situated or, with approval, into a drain.

PP13.   Provision of sanitary fixtures

PP13.1   The number of sanitary fixtures to be provided in any building shall be based on the population for which such building is designed, and such population shall be calculated in terms of regulation A21: Provided that—

            (a)            where in any particular occupancy, separate sanitary facilities are provided for each sex the number of sanitary fixtures installed for them shall be based on the population of that particular sex for which such facilities are intended, and if the number of persons of each sex cannot be determined it shall be assumed that they are in equal proportions;

            (b)            where fixtures are to be situated in separate groups the number of fixtures in any group shall be based on the calculation of that portion of the total population for which the group is intended;

            (c)            any building for which the population cannot be determined shall, where such building contains one or more habitable rooms, be provided with at least 1 WC pan and 1 washbasin.

PP13.2   Subject to the requirements contained in subrule PP13.1, the minimum number of sanitary fittings to be provided in any building shall be as given in Tables 4–8, and such fixtures shall—

            (a)            be situated in places which are convenient of access; and

            (b)            where necessary shall be designated for the use of males or females or both: Provided that any room containing fixtures designated for the use of both sexes shall be capable of being locked from inside.

Table 4—Provision of sanitary fixtures

 

1          2            3         

Type of occupancy

and population            Fixture            Exceptions      

A1: Personnel

            Public and visitors            Table 6

Males:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin

Females:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin            a) In any building where facilities in accordance with Table 6 are available to both personnel and the public or visitors, no separate facilities shall be required for the public or visitors.

b) No separate facilities for the public or visitors shall be required within any shop having a floor area of less than 50 m2.     

A2: Personnel

            Public and visitors

              Peak demand

              No peak demand

            Participants in sports            Table 6

Table 7 (part a)

Table 7 (part b)

 

Table 8 c) In any group of shops under one ownership or in any shopping complex on a single site—

i) facilities for personnel may be situated at convenient locations and not necessarily in any particular shop or shops  

A3       Table 6            ii) facilities for the public and visitors may be situated at convenient locations and not necessarily in any particular shop or shops; 

A4: Personnel

            Public and visitors            Table 6

Males:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin            iii) facilities for personnel may be grouped or combined with those provided for the use of the public or visitors.

            Females:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin            d) In any occupancy where personnel are exposed to high risk substance, dirt, filth, dust, soot, oil, grease or any similar substance exposure to which is such that showers are necessary, at least 1 shower per 15 persons shall be provided          

A5: Public and visitors

              Peak demand

              No peak demand

            Participants in sport     

Table 7 (part a)

Table 7 (part b)

Table 8            separately for each sex and such showers shall be located in, or have direct access to, a change room.   

B1, B2 and B3                        

Personnel            Table 6            

Public and            1 WC pan                  

visitors  1 washbasin                    

C1 and C2                              

Personnel            Table 6            

Public and visitors  Males:             

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

            Females:                     

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

D1, D2 and D3                                   

Personnel            Table 6            

Public and visitors  No separate provision required                       

D4       No provision required                       

F1 Personnel            Table 6            

Public and visitors  Males:             

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

            Females:                     

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

F2 and F3                               

Personnel            Table 6            

Public and visitors  1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

G1: Personnel            Table 6            

Public and visitors  Males:             

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

            Females:                     

            1 WC pan                  

            1 washbasin                    

H1: Personnel

            Public and visitors            Table 6

Males:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin

Females:

1 WC pan

1 washbasin            Any single hotel room or suite or any servant’s room with its own facilities need not be provided with separate facilities for males and females.           

            Residents          Table 5            Showers may be substituted for baths in the following maximum ratios:

Males—two-thirds of total

Females—one-third of total     

H2       Table 5            

H3 and H4: Within each dwelling unit            1 WC pan

1 washbasin

1 bath or shower            

J1, J2, J3 and J4         Table 6            

Educational Institutions Classrooms and lecture rooms (A3 occupancy)                   In primary schools the indicated number of sanitary facilities shall in each case be increased by one.     

            Personnel        Table 6            

            Students or pupils            Table 7            

Dormitories or other residential accommodation (H2 occupancy)                   Separate facilities for personnel and students or pupils shall not be required where all facilities are available to both groups.    

Personnel            Table 5            

Students or pupils   Table 5            Separate facilities for residential accommodation and classrooms or lecture rooms shall not be required where facilities in one are easily available to the other.  

E1, E2 and E3            Number to be provided depends on type and design of Institution. Table 5 may be used as a guide.                       

 

Table 5

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8         

For a population of up to—            Number of sanitary fixtures to be installed relative to the population given in Column 1         

            Males            Females          

            WC pans     Urinals            Wash-

basins   Baths            WC pans     Wash-

basins   Baths   

8          1            1            1            1            2            1            1         

20        1            2            2            2            3            2            2         

40        2            3            3            3            4            3            3         

60        3            4            4            4            6            4            4         

80        4            6            5            5            9            5            5         

100      4            8            6            6            12            6            6         

120      5            9            6            6            14            7            7         

140      5            10            7            7            15            8            8         

180      5            11            8            8            16            8            8         

            For a population

in excess of 180 add 1 WC pan for every 50 persons            For a population

in excess of 180 add 1 urinal for every 40 persons            For a population in

excess of 180 add 1

washbasin and 1 bath

for every 50 persons            For a population in excess of 180 add 1 WC pan, 1 washbasin and 1 bath for every 60 persons           

 

Table 6

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

 

For a population of up to—            Number of sanitary fixtures to be installed relative to the population given in Column 1         

            Males            Females          

            WC pans     Urinals            Wash-

basins   WC pans     Wash-

basins  

15        1            1            1            2            1         

30        1            2            2            3            2         

60        2            3            3            5            3         

90        3            5            4            7            4         

120      3            6            5            9            5         

            For a population in excess of 120 add

1 WC pan, 1 urinal and 1 washbasin for

every 100 persons            For a population in excess of 120 add 1 WC pan for every 50 persons            For a population in excess of 120 add a washbasin for every 100 persons           

 

Table 7

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

 

For a population of up to—            Number of sanitary fixtures to be installed relative to the population given in Column 1         

            Males            Females          

            WC pans     Urinals            Wash-

basins   WC pans     Wash-

basins  

(a)  Facilities subject to peak demand           

50        1            1            1            2            1         

100      1            2            1            3            2         

150      1            3            1            5            3         

250      2            4            2            7            4         

500      3            7            3            12            6         

1000    3            12            4            16            7         

1500    4            15            5            20            8         

            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 WC pan for every 500 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 urinal for every 300 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 washbasin for every 500 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 WC pan for every 150 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 washbasin for every 500 persons           

(b)  Facilities not subject to peak demand   

50        1                        1            1            1         

100      1            1            1            2            1         

150      1            2            1            3            2         

250      2            3            2            5            3         

500      2            4            3            6            4         

1000    2            6            5            8            6         

1500    3            7            6            10            7         

            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 WC pan for every 1000 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 urinal for every 500 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 washbasin for every 700 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 WC pan for every 300 persons            For a population in excess of 1500 add 1 washbasin for every 700 persons           

 

Table 8

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8         

For a             Number of sanitary fixtures to be installed relative to the population given in Column 1         

population             Males            Females          

of up to—            WC pans     Urinals            Wash-

basins            Showers           WC pans     Wash-

basins            Showers          

10        1            1            1            2            2            1            2         

20        1            2            2            2            3            2            2         

30        2            2            3            3            5            3            3         

40        3            3            3            3            6            3            4         

60        3            4            4            5            7            4            5         

80        4            5            5            5            9            5            5         

100      4            6            5            6            10            5            6         

            For a population in excess of 100 add 1 WC pan and 1 urinal for every 100 persons            For a population in excess of 100 add 1 washbasin for every 100 persons            For a population in excess of 100 add 1 shower for every 40 persons            For a population in excess of 100 add 1 washbasins for every 80 persons            For a population in excess of 100 add 1 shower for every 40 persons           

 

PP14.   Hydraulic loading of drainage installations

PP14.1   The hydraulic load discharged into or carried by any discharge pipe or any drain shall be calculated in units, referred to as “fixture units”.

PP14.2   The hydraulic load at any point in any discharge pipe or any drain shall be the sum of the fixture unit ratings of all sanitary fixtures, the discharges from which enter the discharge pipe or drain upstream of such point.

PP14.3   The hydraulic load discharged from any sanitary fixture specified in column 1 of Table 9 shall be as given in column 3, and in the case of any sanitary fixture not listed in column 1 the diameter of the trap outlet of such a fixture, when identified in column 2, shall indicate the hydraulic load, given in column 3, which is to be prescribed for such a fixture.

Table 9—Fixture unit ratings of sanitary fixtures

 

1          2            3         

Examples of sanitary fixtures            Nominal diameter of trap, mm            Hydraulic load, fixture units    

Washbasin, bidet, wall-mounted urinal (separate trap)            32            1         

Bath, sink, shower, wash trough   40            2         

Wall-mounted urinal with integral trap, commercial             50            3         

electrical sanitary fixtures            75 or 80        5         

WC pan            100            8         

Sanitary group              12       

 

PP15.   Drainage systems

PP15.1   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the single stack system:

            (a)            It shall only be installed where the building in question is of the office class which has sanitary fixtures installed in ranges or of the residential class which has sanitary fixtures installed in groups.

            (b)            It shall not be installed in any residential building exceeding 30 storeys in height or in any office building exceeding 24 storeys in height above the lowest ground level abutting such building.

            (c)            No trap vents for the protection of any water seals shall be required in terms of this rule or in terms of subrule PP15.2 or PP15.3.

            (d)            Any supplementary vent stack contemplated in subrules PP15.2 and PP15.3 shall be cross-connected at each storey with the discharge stack above the level of the highest branch discharge pipe connection to the discharge stack.

            (e)            The discharge stack shall be continued upwards to form a stack vent.

            ( f )            The radius of the centre line of any bend at the foot of the discharge stack shall be not less than 300 mm.

            (g)            No offset shall be made in any discharge stack unless a ventilating pipe is provided to reduce any pressure which may be caused by any offset, and the nominal diameter of such ventilating pipe shall be not less than half the diameter of such discharge stack.

            (h)            Every waste fixture trap shall be either a ‘P’ trap which has a water seal of not less than 75 mm in depth or shall be a resealing trap of the ‘P’ type.

            ( j)            The vertical distance between the invert of the lowest branch discharge pipe connected to any discharge stack and the invert of the bend at the foot of the stack shall be not less than—

            (i)            450 mm for stub stacks, stacks in single dwellings of up to three storeys in height and stacks of up to two storeys in height serving a maximum of two groups of sanitary fixtures;

            (ii)            750 mm for stacks of up to five storeys in height in other buildings; and

            (iii)            one storey in height for stacks higher than five storeys.

            (k)            Where any waste branch and any opposed soil branch from a WC pan are connected to any discharge stack the centre line of such waste branch shall not intersect the centre line of such stack within 200 mm below the intersection of the centre line of such soil branch with the centre line of such stack.

            (l)            The inlet of a branch discharge pipe or a fixture discharge pipe joining a discharge stack of equal diameter shall be swept in the direction of flow with a radius of not less than 50 mm or shall be at an angle of 45°.

PP15.2   The following additional requirements shall apply with regard to any single stack installation in any building where the occupancy is of the residential class:

            (a)            The fixture branch of any sanitary fixture in any sanitary group shall be separately connected to the discharge stack.

            (b)            Where the trap fitted to any washbasin has a nominal diameter of 32 mm the internal diameter of the fixture branch serving such washbasin shall be not less than 40 mm.

            (c)            Not more than two sanitary groups installed in any one storey shall be connected to the same discharge stack.

            (d)            A discharge stack of not more than two storeys in height serving a maximum of two groups of sanitary fixtures may discharge into a stub stack.

            (e)            The minimum discharge stack size and, where required, supplementary vent stack size and cross-ventilation requirements shall be as prescribed in Table 10.

Table 10—Minimum discharge stack and supplementary vent stack sizes and requirements for single stack systems: Residential occupancy

 

1          2            3         

Number of storeys served by discharge stack            Nominal diameter of discharge stack, mm            Minimum nominal diameter of supplementary vent or stack serving one or two sanitary groups in each storey, with cross vent at each floor, mm 

Up to 10            100            None   

11 to 15            100            50       

            150            None   

16 to 30            150            None   

 

PP15.3   The following additional requirements shall apply with regard to any single stack installation in any building where the occupancy is of the office class:

            (a)            Where sanitary fixtures are installed in ranges as contemplated in column 2 of Table 11, the minimum nominal diameter of any discharge stack and of any supplementary vent stack, where required, shall be as given in columns 3 and 4 respectively for the number of storeys served by such discharge stack as given in column 1.

            (b)            Any soil or waste branch discharge pipe to which such sanitary fixture referred to in paragraph (a) is connected, shall be separately connected to the discharge stack.

            (c)            For the purposes of Table 11 any number of urinals not exceeding 4 may be regarded as equal to one WC pan.

            (d)            Where a closed system is used and any branch discharge pipe is connected to a stub stack, such closed system shall not receive the discharge from more than four sanitary fixtures in a range.

Table 11—Minimum discharge stack and supplementary vent stack sizes and requirements for single stack systems: Office occupancy

 

1          2            3            4         

Number of storeys served by discharge stack            Maximum number of sanitary fixtures in a range in each storey            Minimum nominal diameter of discharge stack, mm            Minimum nominal diameter of supplementary vent stack, mm

1–4      Not exceeding 5 WC pans and 5 washbasins                   Vent stack not required           

            Not exceeding 2 WC pans and 2 washbasins                              

5–8      3 WC pans and 3 washbasins                   32       

            Exceeding 3 WC pans and 3 washbasins but not exceeding 5 WC pans and 5 washbasins            100            40       

9–12    Not exceeding 2 WC pans and 2 washbasins                   32       

            Exceeding 2 WC pans and 2 washbasins but not exceeding 4 WC pans and 4 washbasins                   40       

1–8      Not exceeding 5 WC pans and 5 washbasins                   Vent stack not required           

9–24            Exceeding 3 WC pans and 3 washbasins, but not exceeding 5 WC pans and 5 washbasins            150            75       

Note: Where the are fewer washbasins than WC’s in each storey the number of WC’s shall determine the supplementary vent stack requirements    

 

PP15.4   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the one-pipe system (including the single stack system):

            (a)            Any soil pipe shall be connected to another soil pipe, a stack or directly to a drain;

            (b)            any waste pipe shall be connected to another waste pipe, a soil pipe, a stack, directly to a drain or to a gully which shall be connected to a drain;

            (c)            any waste or any soil fixture trap may have a common ventilating pipe.

PP15.5   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the two-pipe system:

            (a)            Any soil pipe shall be connected to another soil pipe, a stack or directly to a drain;

            (b)            any waste pipe shall discharge into another waste pipe, a stack or to a gully which shall be connected to a drain;

            (c)            any waste and soil fixture traps shall be separately ventilated.

PP16.   Sizing of discharge pipes

PP16.1   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the sizing of any discharge pipe:

            (a)            The nominal diameter of any discharge pipe shall not be less than the internal diameter of any pipe or outlet of any sanitary fixture which discharges into it: Provided that where the nominal diameter of any horizontal pipe in an offset is more than that of the discharge stack which discharges into it, the nominal diameter of such stack downstream of such off-set may be less than that of such horizontal pipe.

            (b)            The internal diameter of any soil pipe other than a soil pipe from any urinal shall be not less than 100 mm.

            (c)            The internal diameter of any waste pipe shall be not less than 32 mm if it serves a washbasin, bidet or drinking fountain and not less than 40 mm if such pipe serves any other waste fixture.

            (d)            In the single stack system the internal diameter of any waste pipe shall be not less than 40 mm.

            (e)            The hydraulic load carried by any discharge pipe which has a nominal diameter given in column 1 of Table 12 shall not exceed the number of fixture units given in columns 2, 3 or 4 as the case may be: Provided that where a horizontal pipe to which a discharge stack is connected is larger than such stack, any bend connecting such horizontal pipe to such stack shall have a nominal diameter equal to that of such horizontal pipe.

PP16.2   For the purposes of Tables 12 and 13, any waste pipe which has a diameter of 100 mm or greater and any soil pipe shall, subject to the requirements contained in subrule PP16.3, be deemed to be a drain from that point downstream of which the gradient of such pipe or of any drain to which it is connected does not again exceed 45° below the horizontal except where such pipe or drain is connected to any connecting sewer.

PP16.3   Where the diameter of any horizontal pipe at the base of a discharge stack is more than that of the drain to which it discharges, such horizontal pipe shall have a length of not less than 2,5 m, measured from the centre line of such discharge stack, before it is reduced in diameter and connected to such drain.

Table 12—Maximum permissible discharge pipe loadings

 

1          2            3            4         

            Maximum loading (fixture units)                

Nominal pipe diameter, mm            Discharge stacks            Fixture discharge pipes and branch discharge pipes            Horizontal discharge pipes other than pipes referred to in column 3  

32        2            1            1         

40        6            2            3         

50        18            5            8         

65        84            18            35       

75        140            29            60       

100      680            120            280     

125      2 400            350            870     

150      6  000            760            2 100  

 

PP17   Sizing of drains.—The following requirements shall apply with regard to the sizing of any drain:

            (a)            The nominal diameter of any drain shall not in any case be less than 100 mm.

            (b)            The hydraulic load carried by any drain which has a nominal diameter given in column 1 of Table 13 and a gradient given in columns 2 to 14, as the case may be, shall not exceed the number of fixture units given in such table for such diameter and gradient of drain.

            (c)            Where due to the slope of the ground any drain is required to be laid at a gradient steeper than 1 in 5 the hydraulic load carried by the drain shall not exceed that given in column 2 in Table 13 for a gradient of 1 in 5.

Table 13—Maximum permissible drain loads

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10            11            12            13            14       

            Maximum load (fixture units)   

Nominal pipe diameter, mm            Drains having a gradient of       

            1 in 5            1 in 10            1 in 20            1 in 40            1 in 60            1 in 80            1 in 100      1 in 120      1 in 150      1 in 200      1 in 300      1 in 400      1 in 500     

100      12 000            9 000            6 400            4 500            3 650            3 150

(sp)      2 800

(sp)      2 550

(sp)      np            np            np            np            np       

(110 OD)                                                                                                                                                                    

150      40 000            27 000            19 000            13 500            11 000            7 500            8 400            7 700            6 900            6 000            np            np            np       

(160 OD)                                                                                                                                                                    

200      75 000            56 000            40 000            28 500            23 000            20 000            18 000            16 500            15 000            13 000            10 600            np            np       

225      105 000      76 000            54 000            38 000            31 000            27 000            24 000            22 000            19 500            17 000            14 000            np            np       

250                  100 000      72 000            51 000            41 000            36 000            32 000            29 000            26 000            22 500            15 500            16 000            np       

300                  165 000      117 000      82 000            67 000            58 000            52 000            47 000            42 500            37 000            30 000            26 000            23 500

375                  295 000      210 000      148 000      125 000      104 000      93 000            85 000            76 000            66 000            54 000            47 000            42 000

 

 

np = not permitted.

sp = special permission required from local authority.

OD = nominal (outside) diameter for non-metallic pipes.  

 

PP18.   Protection of water seals

PP18.1   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the preservation of any water seal under working conditions:

            (a)            The water seal contained in the trap of any soil fixture shall subject to the requirements contained in subrule PP15.1 be protected by a trap vent where the discharge from such soil fixture is conveyed by—

            (i)            an unventilated branch drain or soil pipe which has a fall exceeding 1,2 m within 300 mm of the outlet of the fixture trap;

            (ii)            an unventilated soil pipe which receives the discharge from any other soil fixture;

            (iii)            a discharge stack which receives at higher level the discharge from any other soil fixture; or

            (iv)            a soil branch which receives the discharge from any other soil fixture;

                        Provided that such trap vent may be omitted in the case where a soil fixture discharges to a soil branch where—

            (aa)            the hydraulic load carried by such soil branch does not exceed 50 fixture units;

            (bb)            such soil branch is served by a 100 mm diameter back vent; and

            (cc)            not more than 16 soil branches discharge into the same discharge stack.

PP18.2   Without prejudice to the requirements contained in subrule PP18.1—

            (a)            in the case of any installation of the two-pipe system the water seal in the trap of any waste fixture shall be protected by a trap vent unless a resealing trap is fitted to such fixture: Provided that this requirement shall not apply to any single bath, shower or sink which discharges independently into a gully where such bath, shower or sink is situated within 2 m vertically above and 3 m horizontally from such gully;

            (b)            in the case of any installation of the one-pipe system the water seal in the trap of any waste fixture shall except in the case of the single stack system, be protected by a trap vent.

PP18.3   The water seal in the trap of any waste fixture which is required to be protected in terms of subrule PP18.2 may as an alternative be protected by a vent valve.

PP18.4   A ventilating pipe shall be provided for any—

            (a)            main drain or branch drain at a point not more than 6 m from the head of such main drain or branch drain, as the case may be, where such head is deemed to be the centre-line of the discharge stack or vertical discharge pipe to which such main drain or branch drain is connected:

                        Provided that such ventilating pipe shall not be required—

            (i)            for any branch drain where the length, measured along such branch drain from its head to the point of connection to any ventilated main drain, is not more than 6 m; or

            (ii)            where such main drain or branch drain is connected to a discharge stack having a stack vent.

            (b)            soil branch which receives the discharge from only one sanitary fixture and which exceeds 6 m in length measured along such branch from the outlet of the trap of such fixture to the point of connection to any ventilated soil pipe;

            (c)            waste pipe longer than 6 m measured along such pipe from the outlet of the trap of any waste fixture discharging to it, to the point of discharge of such pipe into any gully or in the case of the one-pipe system, to the point of connection of the waste pipe with any ventilated soil pipe or any ventilated drain: Provided that such vent pipe may be omitted where the diameter of such waste pipe, as referred to in column 1 of Table 12, is increased by one nominal pipe size and the length of such waste pipe is not more than 10 m;

            (d)            waste branch longer than 6 m measured along such branch from the outlet of the trap of any waste fixture discharging into it, to its point of connection to any ventilated waste pipe.

            (e)            stub stack where—

            (i)            the crown of any WC trap connected to such stack is more than 1,5 m above the invert of the bend at the base of any such stack;

            (ii)            the topmost connection of a waste pipe to any such stack is more than 2 m above the invert of the bend at the base of any such stack;

            (iii)            any such stack serves more than one group of sanitary fixtures; or

            (iv)            any such stack serves branch discharge pipes to which ranges of sanitary fixtures are connected.

PP19.   Sizing of ventilating pipes

PP19.1   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the sizing of ventilating pipes:

            (a)            Any drain or branch drain or any part thereof carrying a hydraulic load of not more than 50 fixture units shall have a ventilating pipe with a nominal diameter of not less than 40 mm.

            (b)            The diameter of any ventilating pipe shall be not less than that given in Table 14 for the relevant developed length of such pipe and the sum of the fixture units derived from any sanitary fixtures whose traps are ventilated, either directly or indirectly by such ventilating pipe.

            (c)            Any stack vent shall have a nominal diameter which is not less than that of the discharge stack to which it is connected: Provided that any stack vent connected to the following types of discharge stack may have a nominal diameter less than that of any such discharge stack but shall not have a nominal diameter of less than 40 mm;

            (i)            a stub stack, where a stack vent is required; and

            (ii)            a discharge stack of two storeys high serving a maximum of two groups of sanitary fixtures.

            (d)            Where any stack vent is connected to the top of any discharge stack such connection shall be at a point not less than 150 mm above the flood level of the highest positioned sanitary fixture in the drainage installation which discharges to such discharge stack: Provided that the nominal diameter of the stack vent connected to such discharge stack shall be not less than the nominal diameter of such discharge stack or not less than that required in terms of paragraph (c), whichever is the greater.

PP19.2   (a)  The developed length of any branch vent shall be measured from the point of its connection to a vent stack or stack vent to the furthest trap vent connected to such branch vent;

(b)  the developed length of any back vent shall be measured from the point of its connection to a vent stack or stack vent to the furthest point of its connection to any discharge pipe; and

(c)  the developed length of any vent stack shall be measured from the open end of such vent stack or, where such vent stack is connected to a stack vent, from the open end of such stack vent to the furthest trap vent served by it or its furthest point of connection to any discharge pipe, whichever is the greater.

PP20.   Installation of discharge pipes and ventilating pipes

PP20.1   Any discharge pipe or ventilating pipe shall—

            (a)            not cause electrolytic corrosion due to any association of dissimilar metals;

            (b)            not be deformed in any way that would restrict flow;

            (c)            be so installed that any bend does not form an acute angle and has the largest practicable radius of curvature with no change in the cross-section of the pipe throughout such bend;

Table 14—Size of ventilating pipes

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10            11            12            13       

            Minimum nominal diameter of ventilating pipe, mm      

Maximum number of fixture units served by vent            32            40 (OD)    40            50 (OD)    50            65            75 (OD)    75            100

(110 OD)            125            150

(160 OD)            200     

            Maximum developed length of ventilating pipe, m        

2          *                                                                                                                                             

6                      *                                                                                                                                 

16                    9            30            51                                                                                                       

48                                9            30            51                                                                                           

84                                5            9            21            51            75                                                                   

128                                          7            15            36            60            90                                                       

190                                          5            7            27            51            75                                                       

1 000                                                               7            18            24            96                                           

2 200                                                               5            9            15            57            177                             

3 800                                                                           5            7            27            75            195                 

7 200                                                                                                   7            21            57            222     

 

 

*Minimum vent size, unlimited length. 

 

            (d)            be safely supported at intervals along its length without restraining thermal movement;

            (e)            be so installed that the gradients, where applicable, are within the limits given in Table 15;

            ( f )            be so installed as to be capable of withstanding the test referred to in rule PP27; and

            (g)            have means of access for internal cleaning.

PP20.2   (a)  (i)  Where any discharge pipe is located within any building and it is desired that such pipe be enclosed it shall be enclosed within a duct: Provided that any part of such pipe may be built into brickwork or concrete where the interior of such part is rendered readily accessible for cleaning.

(ii)  Such duct shall be of a size and shape that any person can readily enter it and work therein or shall be provided with covers that can be readily removed to enable access to be gained to all junctions, bends and cleaning eyes.

(iii)  Where in any room contemplated in subrule PP21.1 (c) such duct is installed there shall be provided inside such duct a means which in the event of any leak from any pipe therein will direct any released liquid or matter from the area of such room to a point of discharge where it shall be readily detectable.

(b)  Any pipe shall be so installed that the removal of any part of a building for the purpose of gaining access to such pipe will not endanger the structural stability of such building.

Table 15—Limiting gradients of discharge pipes

 

1          2            3            4            5         

Waste branches            Soil branches            Horizontal pipes other than branch discharge pipes

Single stack

system            Ventilated one or two-pipe system            WC pan       Other soil fixtures            All systems           

Min.     Max.*            Min.            Max.            Min.            Max.            Min.            Max.            Min.            Max.   

1,25°                1,25°                                    14°            2,5°                        2,5°            45°      

(1/46)            (1/11,5)           (1/46)            (1/11,5)            (1/11,5)           (1/4)            (1/23)            (1/11,5)           (1/23)            (1/1)    

 

 

*The maximum gradient of a waste pipe serving one or more washbasins only shall be 2,5° (1/23).     

 

PP20.3   Any discharge pipe or any ventilating pipe shall be adequately protected against damage from vehicular impact.

PP20.4   Any ventilating pipe shall—

            (a)            be carried upwards without any reduction in diameter and shall throughout its length be horizontal or so graded as to provide a continuous fall from its open end back to the discharge pipe or drain to which it is connected;

            (b)            be so installed that its open end is—

            (i)            not less than 2,5 m above finished ground level;

            (ii)            not less than 100 mm above the closest part of the roof covering of the building through which it passes or to which it is attached;

            (iii)            not less than 2 m above the head of any window, door or other opening in the same building or any other building, whether on the same site or not, within a horizontal distance of 5 m of the said open end; and

            (iv)            not less than 2,5 m above the surface level of any roof slab covering the building which it serves where the slab may at any time be occupied by human beings;

PP20.5   Any trap vent shall be connected to the crown of the fixture discharge pipe on the outlet side of the protected trap at a point not less than 75 mm or not more than 750 mm from the crown of such trap and such trap vent shall, unless carried up independently, be connected to another ventilating pipe at a point not less than 150 mm above the flood-level of the sanitary fixture which such trap vent serves.

PP20.6   Where a two-pipe system is installed any ventilating pipe serving any soil pipe or any soil fixture shall not be connected to any ventilating pipe serving any waste pipe or waste fixture.

PP20.7   Where any supplementary vent stack is installed in addition to and adjacent to any discharge stack, such vent stack shall be connected to such discharge stack at a point below the lowest branch discharge pipe connection to such discharge stack and continued upwards, either independently or interconnected with such discharge stack, as prescribed in subrule PP19.1 (d).

PP20.8   The interconnection between any ventilating pipe and any discharge pipe or drain shall be so located and made that no soil water or waste water can under any circumstances be discharged through any ventilating pipe.

PP21.   Access to drainage installation

PP21.1   The following requirements shall apply with regard to the access to any drain:

            (a)            Any drainage installation shall be so designed and constructed as to permit adequate access to the interior of any pipe in such installation for the purposes of inspection, testing and internal cleaning.

            (b)            Where any discharge pipe enters the ground, adequate means of access to the interior of such pipe shall be provided within 2 m above the point of such entry.

            (c)            Where any drain or discharge pipe passes through a room which is used as a kitchen, pantry or for the preparation, handling, storage or sale of any food the means of access to such drain or pipe, for cleaning purposes, shall be situated outside such room: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in the case of the waste pipe serving any waste fixture contained in such room.

            (d)            Any access opening to a drain or discharge pipe installed within any building shall be covered by an adequately screwed or bolted airtight cover.

            (e)            A rodding eye shall be installed—

            (i)            where there is a change in direction of the drain that exceeds 45°: Provided that where any bend which has a centre line radius of not less than 600 mm is installed such rodding eye may be omitted for not more than two such changes of up to 90° each between any two rodding eyes required in terms of paragraphs (e) (ii), (iii) and (iv);

            (ii)            at any point within 1,5 m of the connection of the drain to a connecting sewer, septic tank or conservancy tank: Provided that an inspection eye shall be installed immediately downstream of such point;

            (iii)            at the highest point of the drain; and

            (iv)            at such intervals along the drain that no rodding distance is more than 25 m measured along the line of such drain from a rodding eye or other permanent means of access to such drain;

            ( f )            Such rodding eye shall—

            (i)            join the drain in the direction of flow at an angle of not more than 45°, be continued up to ground level and be adequately supported; and

            (ii)            be adequately marked and protected.

PP21.2   The access contemplated in subrule PP21.1 may subject to the requirements contained in subrule PP21.7 be provided by the installation of an inspection chamber or manhole.

PP21.3   Any permanent access, contemplated in this rule, which is covered by any paved area of ground shall be covered by an adequate and appropriately marked removable device.

PP21.4   Where any part of a drainage installation passes under a building there shall be—

            (a)            access provided to such installation outside of and as near as possible to such building at each point of entry to or exit from under such building; and

            (b)            no access provided from within such building.

PP21.5   The lid covering any opening which gives access into any drainage installation shall be so sealed that such lid will remain effective under any working conditions.

PP21.6   Any means, other than a manhole or inspection chamber, provided for access to any drainage installation shall—

            (a)            have a removable cover and be so designed and constructed that it will sustain any normal load which may be imposed upon it and exclude the ingress or egress of water;

            (b)            be of such size and shape as to permit ready access to such installation for the purposes of inspecting, testing or cleaning, as the case may be; and

            (c)            when within any building, be so constructed as to be watertight when subjected to a maximum internal water pressure of 50 kPa.

PP21.7   (a)  Any manhole or inspection chamber shall be—

            (i)            located in an open air space;

            (ii)            so constructed and covered to prevent the ingress of water; and

            (iii)            of sufficient strength to sustain any load which may normally be imposed upon it.

(b)  Any inspection chamber shall have a minimum plan dimension of not less than 450 mm.

PP21.8   Where the connection between two sections of any drain are at different levels which necessitate a steep fall, the change in level shall be effected by one or more 22,5° bends which shall be connected to the shortest possible length of drain pipe connected in turn through one or more 22,5° bends to the lower drain.

PP22.   Provision of traps

PP22.1   Any sanitary fixture shall be provided integrally or immediately at its outlet with an effective self-cleaning trap except where such fixture is a bath, washbasin or shower which discharges into—

            (a)            an open channel which shall—

            (i)            be made of impervious material;

            (ii)            have a semi-circular cross-section of diameter not less than 100 mm;

            (iii)            be accessible for cleaning throughout its length;

            (iv)            be fixed immediately beneath the point of discharge; and

            (v)            discharge into a gully; or

            (b)            an open channel serving a urinal where such bath, washbasin or shower is installed in the same room as such urinal.

PP22.2   Any trap which is integral with a sanitary fixture shall—

            (a)            have a smooth waterway; and;

            (b)            be so constructed that any change from one cross-section to another does not cause an obstruction to the passage of solids.

PP22.3   Any trap that is not integral with a sanitary fixture shall be made of non-absorbent and corrosion resistant material and shall be so constructed that—

            (a)            it has a smooth waterway;

            (b)            there is no constriction;

            (c)            it has an outlet diameter which is not less than that of its inlet; and

            (d)            it has at its lowest point a means of access for cleaning:

Provided that this requirement shall not apply where the trap is made of rubber or other similar material.

PP22.4   The minimum nominal diameter of a trap connected to any sanitary fixture, and the minimum depth of its water seal shall be in accordance with those values given for the relevant fixture and installation in Table 16: Provided that the maximum depth of the water seal contained in any trap shall be 100 mm.

PP22.5   Where any trap serving any WC pan is provided with a vent horn, such horn shall have a nominal diameter of not less than 40 mm and shall be located at the side of and not less than 75 mm from the crown of such trap on its outlet side.

Table 16—Minimum diameter and water seal depth of traps

 

1          2            3            4         

Type of trap            Type of sanitary fixture            Type of installation            Minimum nominal diameter, mm            Minimum depth of water seal, mm

Integral WC pan, hospital soil fixture            All            75            50       

            Wall-mounted urinal              50            50       

Non-integral            Bidet, drinking fountain, washbasin, wall-mounted urinal    Two-pipe system            32            40       

                        One-pipe system            32            40       

                        Single stack system            32            75       

Non-integral            Bath, shower, sink (hospital, kitchen or laboratory type), laundry trough, clothes-washing machine, dish-washing machine, food-waste disposal unit (all of the domestic type), sanitary-towel disposer            Two-pipe system            40            40       

                        One-pipe system            65            65       

                        Single stack system            40            75       

            Clothes-washing machine, dish-washing machine, food-waste disposal unit, floor drain (all of commercial type)    All            50            75       

            Urinal of slab or stall type up to 3 units or 1,8 m in length            All            50            50       

            Urinal of slab or stall type (all other), gully     All            75            50       

 

PP23.   Provision of gullies

PP23.1   Subject to the requirements contained in subrules PP23.2, PP23.3 and PP23.4, any drainage installation shall be provided with one gully.

            (a)            The head of any such gully shall consist of—

            (i)            an overflow fitting covered with a removable cover which fits over the gully head and that permits overflow through a cross-sectional area not less than that of the trap of such gully, but that prevents the ingress of foreign matter directly from above; or

            (ii)            a hopper covered with a removable grating set in the gully head and the spaces between the bars of such grating shall be not less than 10 mm or more than 12 mm wide and shall provide an effective open area through such bars not less than the minimum cross-sectional area of the trap of such gully: Provided that such gully head may be dished, in which case the overflow level of such dish shall be not less than 75 mm above the level of the grating of such gully.

            (b)            The overflow level of any such gully shall be not less than—

            (i)            150 mm below the crown of the lowest trap serving any sanitary fixture in such installation: Provided that this requirement shall not apply to any sanitary fixture where its discharge is raised;

            (ii)            150 mm above the surrounding ground or 50 mm above any permanent surrounding paving and such paving shall ensure drainage away from such gully.

            (c)            The following requirements shall apply with regard to the trap of any such gully:

            (i)            The nominal diameter equivalent to its minimum cross-sectional area and the depth of its water seal shall be in accordance with the requirements contained in subrule PP22.4;

            (ii)            the surface level of the water in such gully shall be not more than 500 mm below the overflow level of such gully where such gully is a dished gully; and

            (iii)            the water seal in such gully shall be maintained by means of at least one waste pipe which discharges into such gully.

PP23.2   A trapped floor drain may be installed within any building as a waste water outlet in any floor which shall slope at a gradient of not less than 1 in 200 from all sides towards any such floor drain: Provided that any such floor drain shall—

            (a)            be so located that it is accessible;

            (b)            be made of non-absorbent and corrosion resistant material;

            (c)            have a minimum outlet diameter and a trap seal depth as contemplated in subrule PP22.4;

            (d)            be provided with a removable grating, the open area of which shall be not less than two-thirds of the area of the waste pipe into which such outlet discharges; and

            (e)            have its water seal maintained by means of—

            (i)            a tap situated above it; or

            (ii)            a waste fixture located in the same room, the outlet of which will discharge waste water directly into the gully above the level of the water seal in such a manner as not to overflow onto the floor.

PP23.3   (a)  A suitable grease trap shall be provided to take the discharge of waste water from any sink or other fixture—

            (i)            in any building where waste water is to be discharged to a french drain; and

            (ii)            where the discharge of grease, oil or fat may cause an obstruction to the flow in any drain or sewer or may interfere with the efficient operation of any sewage disposal system.

(b)  Any such grease trap shall be designed and constructed to have a removable lid or a manhole cover which shall permit the effective removal of grease, oil, fat or solid matter.

(c)  No person shall permit any accumulation of grease, fat, oil or solid matter in any grease trap tank or chamber, which will prevent the effective operation of such grease trap tank or chamber.

PP23.4   Any paved area upon which petrol or oil or wash-water contaminated with petrol or oil may fall shall be graded and drained to a gully which shall discharge into a suitable petrol and oil interceptor trap which shall discharge into a drain.

PP23.5   The surface level of the water in any gully trap shall be not more than 500 mm below the top of a dished gully except that where it is impracticable so to comply the gully trap shall be located in a manhole which shall have its walls brought up to a height of not less than 150 mm above the surrounding ground and the access to such manhole shall be covered with a metal grating of such a strength as to sustain any load which may normally be imposed upon it.

PP23.6   Any waste pipe which discharges into any gully shall discharge at a point above the surface of the water seal of the gully trap but not more than 100 mm above the level of the grating.

PP23.7   Any gully shall be situated outside the building or be situated in any place which is permanently open to the external air and shall in either case be accessible for cleaning and maintenance: Provided that a gully may be installed within a building as a waste water outlet in a floor and be so located that it is easily accessible and such floor shall slope at a gradient of not less than 1 in 200 from all sides towards such gully.

PP23.8   The outlet contemplated in subrule PP23.7 shall be made of non-absorbent and corrosion resistant material and shall have a minimum diameter of 50 mm.

PP24.   Installation of drains

PP24.1   Where any drain is constructed adjacent to or under or through a structural part of any building adequate measures shall be taken to ensure that the trench in which such drain is laid in no way impairs the stability of such building or the stability of any other building or interferes with or affects any existing services.

PP24.2   Where any portion of any drain passes under any building such portion shall—

            (a)            be protected against the transmission of any load to it;

            (b)            be laid without change of direction or gradient;

            (c)            not be provided with any means of access for cleaning from inside such building.

PP24.3   Where any portion of a drain passes through a building such portion shall be—

            (a)            supported throughout its length without restricting thermal movement and such support shall be securely attached to the building; and

            (b)            so placed that any junction, bend or any point of access into it is readily accessible.

PP24.4   Any drain shall—

            (a)            be laid in a straight line between any points where changes of direction or gradient occur; and

            (b)            be laid with approved flexible joints which will permit joint movement to take place throughout the life of the drainage installation, withstand root penetration and not deteriorate when in contact with sewage or water and will not cause any obstruction in the interior of such drain;

            (c)            be laid at a gradient, suitable for the hydraulic load to be carried by such drain, as given in Table 13; and

            (d)            where its gradient may exceed 1 in 5 anchor blocks shall be provided to securely fix such drain in place.

PP24.5   Any drain shall have—

            (a)            soil cover over the outside of the drain of not less than 300 mm; or

            (b)            precast or cast-in-situ concrete slabs placed over such drain, isolated from the crown of the pipe by a soil cushion not less than 100 mm thick and such slabs shall be wide enough and strong enough to prevent excessive superimposed loads being transferred directly to the pipes.

PP24.6   Where any drain has a branch drain connected to it such connection shall—

            (a)            be by means of a junction fitting which shall not be a saddle junction;

            (b)            enable the flow from such branch drain to enter the drain obliquely in the direction of flow so that the included angle between the axes of the two drains does not exceed 45°.

PP25.   Common drains.—Drainage installations on any two or more sites, whether such sites are in the same ownership or not, may be permitted to discharge into a connecting sewer through a common drain.

PP26.   Test for drains

PP26.1   After any drainage installation has been completed and back-filled the drains shall be tested as follows:

            (a)            An air test conducted by pumping air into such drains under a pressure of not less than 0,35 kPa (35 mm head of water) shall be performed.

            (b)            Such drains shall be deemed to have passed such test if the pressure after 3 minutes is not less than 0,25 kPa (25 mm head of water).

PP27.   Tests for discharge pipes and ventilating pipes

PP27.1   After any drainage installation has been completed the discharge pipes and ventilating pipes shall be tested as follows—

            (a)            All traps shall be filled with water;

            (b)            the outlets of all ventilating pipes shall be plugged;

            (c)            the air test given in rule PP26 shall be applied and the criterion for passing the test shall apply.

PP28.   In-situ percolation test for soils

PP28.1   For the purpose of establishing the suitability of any soil in which a french drain is to be constructed the following test procedure and evaluation shall be carried out.

PP28.2   (a)  A test hole or, where necessary, a number of holes uniformly spaced shall be excavated on such site to a depth estimated for the proposed french drain.

(b)  The bottom 350 mm of such hole shall have a diameter of 300 mm or have a plan shape 300 mm square.

(c)  The sides of such bottom part shall be roughened to provide a natural infiltration surface.

(d)  Any loose material shall be removed from the bottom of such hole and shall be replaced with a 50 mm thick layer of gravel to prevent scouring when such hole is filled with water.

PP28.3   (a)  Such hole or holes shall be filled with water to a height of not less than 300 mm above such gravel and maintained at such a level for a period of not less than 4 hours.

(b)  At the end of the period contemplated in paragraph (a) the level of the water in such hole or holes shall be marked and the time noted.

(c)  The drop in level of such water as it soaks away over a subsequent period of 30 minutes shall be measured: Provided that if all the water percolates away before such 30 minutes, the actual time taken for this to occur shall be measured.

(d)  The percolation rate shall be reported as the time taken for such water level to drop 25 mm: Provided that where a number of holes are tested the average percolation rate for the site shall be calculated and such average shall be used as the percolation rate for the french drain effluent.

PP28.4   Where such percolation rate is less than 30 minutes the soil on the site shall be deemed suitable for the construction and use of a french drain.

PART Q

NON-WATER-BORNE MEANS OF SANITARY DISPOSAL

QQ1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part Q of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the means of sewage disposal used complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

QQ2.   Construction

QQ2.1   Any closet shall be constructed with a floor, walls and a roof of material adequate for its purpose and such closet shall be provided with a door or other means which will ensure privacy of the occupant of such closet.

QQ2.2   Any closet shall be provided with an opening which will give natural lighting and ventilation and the area of such opening shall be not less than 0,2 m2.

QQ2.3   Any pan, pail or container and any other fitting related thereto shall be adequate for the purpose for which it is to be used.

QQ2.4   (a)  Any closet shall be provided with a seat and a riser of such height that a space of not more than 25 mm is left between the underside of such seat and the top of the receptacle; and

(b)  the aperture in such seat shall be at least 25 mm less in every diameter than the corresponding diameter of the top of such receptacle and such aperture shall be fitted with a self-closing flyproof lid.

QQ2.5   For the purpose of guiding any pail into its central position beneath the aperture in such seat, guides shall be provided either in the floor of the closet or on the underside of such seat.

QQ3.   Siting

QQ3.1   No excavation for a pit latrine shall be sited within 3 m of any building or of any boundary of the site on which it is located.

QQ3.2   Where any excavation for a pit latrine is positioned outside the closet so that excreta is delivered into it from a chute fitted under the closet seat such excavation shall be adequately covered over.

QQ3.3   Where any closet, other than a chemical closet, forms part of any dwelling house such closet shall be so positioned and constructed as to prevent the transmission of odours to the rest of such house.

QQ3.4   No closet, other than a chemical closet, shall open directly into any habitable room.

QQ3.5   Any closet which is not a chemical closet shall have direct access from the open air or from a permanently ventilated space.

QQ3.6   Any closet which contains a removable pail shall be provided with access to such pail for replacement purposes so that the pail is not carried out through the doorway of such closet and such access shall be provided with a self-closing flyproof lid.

PART R

STORMWATER DISPOSAL

RR1.   General.—The regulations contained in Part R of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the means of stormwater disposal complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

RR2.   Stormwater Disposal.—Any means of stormwater disposal on any site shall include—

            (a)            in the case of any building on such site, roof valleys and gutters and downpipes or, where gutters and downpipes have not been provided, other means of ensuring that stormwater from any roof is controlled and will flow away from such building; and

            (b)            any surface stormwater drains, channels or below-ground stormwater drains that may be necessary to convey stormwater away from such site or from one part to another part of such site.

RR3.   Valleys and Gutters

RR3.1   Any valley or gutter shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than that given in Table 1, for the rainfall region in question.

 

1          2         

Rainfall region            Internal cross-sectional area

of valley or gutter per m2

of roof plan area served      

Summer            140 mm2    

Year-round            115 mm2    

Winter  80 mm2    

 

RR3.2   Such requirements in respect of any downpipe shall be deemed to be satisfied where the internal cross-sectional area of such downpipe is not less than 100 mm2 per 1 m2 of roof plan area served by such downpipe: Provided that such internal cross-sectional area is not less than 4 400 mm2.

RR4.   Access to stormwater drains.—On any stormwater drain ready means of access shall be installed at such intervals that no part of such drain, measured along the line of such drain, is more than 40 m from such means of access.

RR5.   Connection to stormwater sewer.—Where any stormwater sewer is available in any street or servitude abutting any site to be provided with stormwater drainage, the owner of such site shall, if so required by the local authority, at his own cost install one or more stormwater drains to be connected by the local authority to such stormwater sewer.

RR6.   Use of street surface drainage system.—Where the local authority considers the capacity of any street surface drainage system to be adequate to accept the discharge of stormwater from any site it may permit such stormwater so to discharge: Provided that the owner of such site shall, where so required by the local authority, at his own cost provide one or more conduits to convey such stormwater to such street surface drainage system.

PART S

FACILITIES FOR DISABLED PERSONS

SS1.   General.—The requirements contained in regulation S2 of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where the facilities provided for disabled persons comply with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

SS2.   Ramps.—Any ramp provided for the use of persons in wheelchairs shall—

            (a)            have a gradient, measured along the centre line, of not more than—

            (i)            1:12 where the difference in level of the ends of the ramp is more than 400 mm; or

            (ii)            1:10, where such difference in level is not more than 400 mm;

            (b)            have a clear trafficable surface not less than 1,1 m wide;

            (c)            have a surface constructed of a slip resistant material;

            (d)            be provided with a landing for every 1,5 m of vertical rise, and such landing shall be not less than 1,2 m in length and have a width of not less than the ramp;

            (e)            be provided, at the end adjacent to any entrance door to any building, with a level surface with a minimum length of 2 m, if such door opens towards such ramp or 1,8 m if such door opens away from such ramp and where any doorleaf or window swings over such surface, such doorleaf or window shall not obstruct movement of any such person;

            ( f )            be provided, at any change of direction between two straight sections of ramp, with a level landing of not less than 1,2 m in length measured along the centre line;

            (g)            be provided with a handrail on the side where the change in level between the ends of the ramp is more than 600 mm, and such handrail shall—

            (i)            be positioned between 850 mm and 1 000 mm above the surface of the ramp;

            (ii)            be so finished off as not to present a hazard to any person using such ramp; and

            (iii)            follow the gradient of such ramp for the full length of the ramp;

            (h)            be provided, where there is a difference in level between such ramp and any floor or ground level at the side of the ramp, with—

            (i)            a balustrade, as contemplated in regulation M1, where such difference in level is more than 600 mm; or

            (ii)            a balustrade, as aforesaid, or a raised kerb not less than 75 mm high, measured vertically above the surface of the ramp, where such difference in level is not more than 600 mm.

SS3.   Lifts

SS3.1   In any passenger lift installation there shall be not less than one lift which shall—

            (a)            have a minimum internal dimension of 1,1 m in width and 1,4 m in depth;

            (b)            have a doorway with an unobstructed width of not less than 800 mm; and

            (c)            be fitted with handrails on two sides at a height of between 850 mm and 1 000 mm above the floor level of such lift.

SS3.2   Where such lift is operated automatically, it shall comply with the following requirements:

            (a)            Audible and visual warnings shall be provided in the lift lobby to indicate the opening of the lift doors.

            (b)            Any control required to be operated by a passenger in such lift shall be positioned not higher than 1,2 m above the floor level of such lift.

            (c)            The light level on the control panel in such lift shall be not less than 50 lux.

SS4.   Doors.—In any building contemplated in regulation S1—

            (a)            the leaf of any single door and at least one leaf of a double door when in the 90° position shall provide a clear opening not less than 750 mm wide at right angles to the direction of travel.

            (b)            any handle fitted to a doorleaf of any door in an emergency route or in a feeder route or in any compartment containing toilet facilities for use by disabled persons shall be of the lever type and be installed at a height of not more than 1,2 m above floor level.

            (c)            any difference in level of the surface of a floor at any threshold shall be not more than 15 mm.

SS5.   Toilet facilities

SS5.1   In any building contemplated in regulation S1 there shall be one or more WC pans suitable for use by persons in a wheelchair: Provided that—

            (a)            in any building which is a hotel, lodging house or hostel where—

            (i)            bedrooms are provided with private toilet facilities, at least one such bedroom in every 100 or part thereof shall be provided with a WC pan, washbasin and bath or shower for disabled persons;

            (ii)            bedrooms do not have private toilet facilities, there shall be provided, on each floor, at least one compartment containing a WC pan and a washbasin, and one containing a bath or shower for disabled persons;

            (b)            in any building, not being a building contemplated in paragraph (a), where in terms of rule PP13 a combined total of more than 20 WC pans and urinals are required to serve the total population, not less than two WC pans shall be provided for the use of disabled persons; and

            (c)            any disabled person shall not be required to travel, from any point in such building accessible to such person, a distance of more than 200 m in order to reach any compartment containing such WC pan.

SS5.2   (a)  In any building where separate sanitary fixtures are required for each sex, any two compartments required to contain a WC pan or bath or shower, irrespective of the sex for which they are provided, may be replaced by one such compartment provided for the use of disabled persons of both sexes: Provided that the total number of sanitary fixtures is adequate.

(b)  The door of any such compartment containing toilet facilities shall be either a sliding door or, if hinged, shall open outwards, and where a locking device is fitted, the doorleaf shall be openable from the outside by the use of a suitable device, and such leaf shall be fitted with a suitable means of indicating whether the compartment is occupied.

(c)  Any compartment containing a WC pan for the use of disabled persons shall have a minimum area of 2,9 m2 and a minimum plan dimension of 1,6 m.

(d)  A distance of not less than 450 mm or not more than 500 mm shall be provided between the centre line of the WC pan and the nearer side wall of such compartment, and approved grab bars shall be fixed to such nearer wall and the rear wall.

(e)  The distance from the front edge of the WC pan to the rear wall of such compartment shall be not less than 660 mm.

( f )  The top surface of the seat of the WC pan shall be not less than 460 mm and not more than 480 mm above the floor level.

(g)  Unless the WC pan is provided with a special back rest, the lid and seat thereof, when raised to the upright position, shall remain in such position.

(h)  The pan flushing control and toilet-paper holder shall be easily accessible to any person in a wheelchair.

SS5.3   (a)  Within any such compartment the washbasin shall be mounted without legs or pedestal, and the height from the floor to the top edge of such basin shall be not more than 830 mm.

(b)  Such washbasin shall have a vertical clearance of 650 mm from under the basin to the floor, measured at a point not less than 160 mm from the front of and under the basin.

(c)  Where a vanity slab is fitted in such compartment, the distance from the edge of the facia to the inside of the bowl of the washbasin in such slab shall be not more than 80 mm, and such slab shall have a vertical clearance of 680 mm measured from the floor to the underside of the facia.

(d)  Water taps supplying such washbasin shall be operated by lever handles, and the cold-water tap shall be within reach of any person sitting on the WC pan.

SS5.4   Any bath or shower cubicle provided for the use of disabled persons shall be so designed and positioned as to allow a person in a wheelchair to transfer to a seat in such bath or cubicle.

SS6.   Auditoria and Halls.—Where any building contemplated in regulation S1 contains one or more auditoria or halls fitted with fixed seating, floor space accessible to any person in a wheelchair shall be set aside for the accommodation of wheelchairs in such auditoria or halls and—

            (a)            such space shall be situated adjacent to an exit door and shall be so arranged that any wheelchair will not obstruct any aisle or exit door; and

            (b)            such space shall be of a size sufficient to accommodate—

            (i)            one wheelchair where the number of fixed seats for which the auditorium or hall is designed is not more than 50;

            (ii)            two wheelchairs where the number of fixed seats for which the auditorium or hall is designed is more than 50 but not more than 400; and

            (iii)            three wheelchairs or a number of wheelchairs equal to 0,5% of the number of fixed seats for which the auditorium or hall is designed, whichever is the greater, where such number of fixed seats is more than 400.

SS7.   Obstructions in path of travel.—Where in any building contemplated in regulation S1—

            (a)            the difference in levels at any step or other change in level in the floor along any path of travel is more than 25 mm a suitable ramp from one level to the other shall be provided for the use of disabled persons;

            (b)            any part of a building, sign, light-fitting or other object protrudes more than 300 mm into or hangs over any path of travel and has a clearance of less than 2 m above the trafficable surface, a barrier commencing not higher than 300 mm above such surface shall be provided to indicate the presence and position of the inadequate headroom above.

SS8.   Parking.—Where provision has been made within any building contemplated in regulation S1, or on the site on which such building is erected, for the parking of more than 50 motor vehicles—

            (a)            At least one parking space per 200 or part thereof of the total number of parking spaces shall be provided for parking of vehicles used by disabled persons;

            (b)            any parking space provided for vehicles used by disabled persons shall be of an approved length, shall be not less than 3,5 m wide and shall be situated on a level surface;

            (c)            such parking space shall be located as near as possible to the means of access contemplated in subregulation S2(2) and (3) and shall be accessible thereto;

            (d)            such parking space shall be clearly demarcated as being intended for the use of disabled persons only.

SS9.   Indication of existence of facilities

SS9.1   Where facilities for disabled persons have been provided in or in connection with any building, the existence and position of such facilities shall be indicated by—

            (a)            exhibiting externally at the main entrance of and at any other approved position in such building, the international symbol as depicted in Appendix 1 to this code; and

            (b)            exhibiting internally, in approved positions, such symbol, which shall be clearly visible, to indicate to disabled persons the route to and the entrance to such facilities.

SS9.2   The size of any such symbol shall be not less than 100 mm × 100 mm, and the symbol of a person in a wheelchair shall be in the colour yellow on a black background.

PART T

FIRE PROTECTION

TT1.   General.—The requirements of regulation T1 shall be deemed to be satisfied where any building is designed, constructed and equipped in accordance with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

TT2.   Safety distances

TT2.1   The external walls of any building shall be classified as one of the following types:

            (a)            Type FR, which has a fire resistance equal to or more than that given in Table 1 for the occupancy in question;

            (b)            Type F, which has a fire resistance of less than that given in Table 1, but when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II, satisfies the requirements for stability and integrity for a period of not less than that given in Table 1 for the occupancy in question and such wall is constructed with non-combustible external cladding; or

            (c)            Type N, which has a fire resistance of less than that given in Table 1 for the occupancy in question and has—

            (i)            combustible external cladding; or

            (ii)            non-combustible external cladding but such wall, when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II, has failed to satisfy the requirements for either stability or integrity, or both, for the period given in Table 1 for the occupancy in question.

Table 1—Fire Resistance of External Walls

 

1          2         

Occupancy            Fire resistance, minutes

All occupancies except those mentioned below   30       

B1, C1, D1, E1, E2, E3, F1, F3, J2 and J3            60       

J1         120     

 

TT2.2   Where any external wall of a building is of Type FR and such wall does not contain any window or any other opening there shall be no restriction upon the safety distance for such wall.

TT2.3   Where any external wall of a building is of Type F and such wall does not contain any window or other opening, the safety distance required shall be not less than the relevant figure given in column 2 of Table 2: Provided that—

            (a)            for occupancy classified as J1, J2 or J3 the safety distance required shall be not less than the relevant figure given in columns 5, 4 or 3 respectively; and

            (b)            for any building classified H4, where the area of elevation facing any boundary is not more than 7,5 m2, such safety distance may be reduced to 0,5 m.

Table 2 — Safety Distance D (metres)

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10            11            12            13            14            15            16            17            18            19            20            21            22            23            24            25            26            27            28       

Area of openings, m2 in elevation            Less than

5         

5         

7,5      

10       

30       

50       

70       

90       

110     

130     

150     

170     

190     

210     

230     

250     

270     

290     

310     

330     

350     

370     

390     

410     

430     

450      500

or

more   

Occupancy class Low fire load where the fire load in a division does not exceed 25 kg/m2 (timber equivalent)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

A1; A2; A3; A4; A5; B3; C2; D3; D4; E1; E2; E3; G1; H1; H2; H3; H4; J3; J4 

 

 

1,0      

 

 

1,5      

 

 

2,0      

 

 

2,4      

 

 

3,8      

 

 

4,5      

 

 

5,0      

 

 

5,3      

 

 

5,5      

 

 

5,7      

 

 

5,9      

 

 

6,1      

 

 

6,2      

 

 

6,3      

 

 

6,4      

 

 

6,5      

 

 

6,6      

 

 

6,7      

 

 

6,8      

 

 

6,9      

 

 

6,9      

 

 

7,0      

 

 

7,1      

 

 

7,1      

 

 

7,2      

 

 

7,2      

 

 

7,4      

Moderate fire load where the fire load in a division is between 25 kg/m2 and 50 kg/m2 (timber equivalent)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

B2; C1; D2; F1; F2; F3; J2 

1,5      

2,0      

2,2      

2,5      

4,6      

5,5      

6,0      

6,4      

6,7      

7,0      

7,2      

7,4      

7,5      

7,7      

7,8      

8,0      

8,1      

8,2      

8,3      

8,4      

8,5      

8,5      

8,6      

8,7      

8,8      

8,8      

9,0      

High fire load where the fire load in a division exceeds 50 kg/m2 (timber equivalent)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

B1; D1; J1            2,0            2,7            3,5            3,7            6,2            7,3            8,0            8,6            9,0            9,3            9,6            9,9            10,1            10,3            10,5            10,6            10,8            10,9            11,1            11,2            11,3            11,4            11,5            11,6            11,7            11,8            12,0    

 

Intermediate values from Columns 3 to 28 may be interpolated.

The values contained in Column 4 to 28 approximate to those calculated using the following formulae:

 

 

 

Where A = the total area of window or other openings on one elevation of the division

D = the safety distance

TT2.4   Where any external wall of any building is of Type N or where any building is provided with external walls containing windows or other openings, such building shall, subject to the requirements of subrule TT2.10, be so sited that a circle of radius equal to the safety distance given in Table 2 for the window area and occupancy concerned, drawn from any point on any such window or other opening in such external wall shall not intersect any lateral boundary of the site: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in respect of—

            (a)            any building contemplated in subrule TT2.6;

            (b)            any such wall which faces a public place, railway siding reserve or any open space secured by an approved servitude on an adjoining site;

            (c)            any such wall of a ground or basement storey facing a lateral boundary on which is erected a free-standing wall which—

            (i)            is constructed of non-combustible material;

            (ii)            has a fire resistance of not less than that prescribed for such external wall;

            (iii)            is equal in height to that of the basement or ground storey, as the case may be; and

            (iv)            extends at each end beyond any window or opening concerned by a distance of not less than the difference between the minimum safety distance given in Table 2 and the actual boundary distance.

TT2.5   Where there are two or more buildings on the same site, or where any building has two or more divisions and—

            (a)            where any external wall of any such building or division does not contain any windows or other openings, the distance between such external wall and a notional boundary line between such buildings or divisions shall be not less than the relevant requirement for safety distance contained in subrule TT2.2 or TT2.3 as the case may be; and

            (b)            subject to the requirements of subrule TT2.10, where any external wall of such building or division is of Type N or contains windows or other openings, any circle of radius equal to the safety distance given in Table 2 for the occupancy concerned, drawn from any point on any window or opening in the external wall of one such building or division, shall not intersect any circle of radius equal to the safety distance given in Table 2 for the occupancy concerned in the external wall of such other building or division, drawn from any point in any window or opening in the external wall of such other building or division: Provided that the intersection of such circles shall be permitted where—

            (i)            the included angle between such walls is more than 135°; or

            (ii)            the included angle between such walls is more than 90° and the distance between the nearest points on such windows or openings is more than 2 m.

TT2.6   Any building classified H4 and having—

            (a)            a plan area of not more than 80 m2;

            (b)            an area of any elevation facing a lateral boundary of not more than 25 m2; and

            (c)            windows or other openings in such elevation; shall be so situated that the distance between such elevation and such boundary shall be not less than 1 m: Provided that, for any building classified H4, where the area of elevation facing such boundary is not more than 7,5 m2, such boundary distance may be reduced to 0,5 m.

TT2.7   Notwithstanding the requirements contained in subrule TT2.1, any structural external wall shall when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II, satisfy the requirement for stability for a period not less than that required in rule TT7.

TT2.8   Without prejudice to the foregoing requirements where any division or any building is equipped with a sprinkler system the minimum safety distances given in Table 2 may be reduced to half the distances so given: Provided that in no case shall such reduced distance be less than 1 m.

TT2.9   The requirements contained in this rule shall not apply—

            (a)            to any parking shelter for vehicles where such shelter has no walls or has non-combustible walls and non-combustible roof covering;

            (b)            to any carport on the same site as any building classified H4.

TT2.10   (a)  Where any building is not divided into divisions the requirements contained in this subrule shall apply mutatis mutandis to the whole of the particular elevation of the building.

(b)  The area of any window or opening or the sum of the areas of all windows or openings, as the case may be, in that portion of the elevation of the building between division floors and between division walls shall be calculated: Provided that—

            (i)            where portions of such elevation are at different distances from the boundary, another division of the same building or from another building, each such portion and the area of window or opening contained therein may be separately considered;

            (ii)            no window or other opening or portion of such window or opening in any external wall of any building shall be taken into consideration in the calculation of the total area of windows or openings where the included angle between such wall and any boundary of the site, any external wall of any other division of the same building or any external wall of any other building on the same site is more than 30°, and such window, opening or portion thereof is situated more than 3 m from such boundary, other division or other building;

            (iii)            where any building has external walls of Type N, the total elevation area of such walls shall be construed as being a window or opening for the purposes of this rule;

            (iv)            where any garage on the same site as any building classified H4 is situated close to any lateral boundary of the site and in such a way that the doorway is at an angle of approximately 90° to such boundary—

            (aa)            any circle of radius equal to the safety distance required for an occupancy classified H4 and drawn from a centre located in the plane of the garage door at a point nearest to such boundary shall intersect a cut-off line drawn from the same point and at an angle of 45° to the plane of such door, at a position on or within such boundary; or

            (bb)            The side wall of such garage may be extended and the centre of such circle located at any point in the plane of the door that will enable such circle and the related cut-off line to intersect on or within such boundary: Provided that such wall extension shall be of a height not less than that of such door and of a length that will ensure that such cut-off line will simultaneously intersect the extension of such wall and such circle within the boundary.

TT3.   Different occupancies in a building.—In any building there shall be permitted an area of—

            (a)            not more than 100 m2 of an occupancy classified J1 or not more than 300 m2 of an occupancy classified J2 or J3, within any other occupancy;

            (b)            not more than 100 m2 of an occupancy not classified J1, within an occupancy so classified.

TT4.   Division area.—Any building shall be divided into divisions of an area not more than that given in column 2, 3 or 4 of Table 3, as the case may be, and such divisions shall be separated effectively from each other by division separating elements: Provided that—

            (a)            where an occupancy classified J1, used for the storage of flammable liquids, forms part of any building, such part shall be a separate division and the area of such division shall be not more than 100 m2;

            (b)            where storage of goods is to a height of more than 3 m in any occupancy classified J1 or J2, an approved fixed installation of automatic fire extinguishment shall be provided.

Table 3—Maximum division area, m2

 

1          2            3            4         

 

Occupancy            No fixed

automatic fire

extinguishment             With fixed automatic fire

extinguishment installation        

            installation        1 storey   2 storeys and over    

*E1, *E2, *E3            1 250            1 250            1 250  

A2, B2, B3, C1, C2, G1            5 000            No limit            10 000

A4, A5, D3, J3, J4   No limit            No limit            No limit           

All other occupancies            2 500            No limit            5 000  

* Maximum division area on any storey and all such divisions shall be interconnected.

 

TT5.   Fire Performance: General

TT5.1   Where any element or component of a building is required to have a particular fire resistance such requirement shall, in respect of the materials or method of construction of such element or component, be deemed to have been satisfied where—

            (a)            such materials or methods are in accordance with the particulars set out in Tables 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 contained in rule TT56;

            (b)            a representative specimen of such element or component has been shown to have the required fire resistance when tested by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR; or

            (c)            an assessment, in writing, of such element or component has been made by the Council of the South African bureau of Standards or the CSIR and such element or component has been found suitable for the particular purpose.

TT5.2   Where non-combustibility of any element or component is required in terms of these rules such requirement shall be deemed to be satisfied where—

            (a)            such element or component is proved to be made only of the relevant material contemplated in rule TT57;

            (b)            when tested by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR a representative specimen of such element or component has been shown to be non-combustible; or

            (c)            an assessment, in writing, of such element or component has been made by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR and such element or component has been found to be suitable for the particular intended purpose.

TT5.3   In any building not being a building classified H4, any architectural or decorative feature may be constructed of combustible material where such material has been the subject of a favourable evaluation by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards of the CSIR.

TT6.   Fire resistance of occupancy and division separating elements

TT6.1   Any portion of a building having an occupancy in any one of the groups of occupancies (a) to (g) contemplated below shall, subject to the requirements contained in rule TT3, be separated by means of an occupancy separating element from any portion of such building used for an occupancy in any other of such groups of occupancies:

            (a)            A1, A2, A3, A4, C1, C2

            (b)            A5

            (c)            B1, D1

            (d)            B2, B3, D2, D3, D4, F1, F2, F3, G1, J2, J3, J4

            (e)            E1, E2, E3

            ( f )            H1, H2, H3

            (g)            J1

TT6.2   (a)  Where any occupancy separating element is required in terms of subrule TT6.1 such occupancy separating element shall have a fire resistance not less than that given in Column 2 of Table 4.

(b)  Where, in terms of rule TT4, a division separating element is required, such division separating element shall have a fire resistance of not less than the relevant figure given in column 2 of Table 4.

Table 4—Fire resistance of occupancy and division separating elements

 

1          2         

Occupancy            Fire resistance, minutes

All occupancies other than those referred to below   60       

B1, C1, D1, E1, E2, E3, F1, F3, J1  120     

 

TT7.   Fire stability of structural elements or components

            (a)            Any structural element or component directly supporting a separating element contemplated in rule TT6 shall, when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II, satisfy the requirement for stability for a period not less than that required for fire resistance of such separating element.

            (b)            Any other structural element or component (not being a component forming part of a roof assembly) which is located in an occupancy given in column 1 of Table 5 shall, when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II, satisfy the requirement for stability for a period not less than that given in column 3 to 7 for the height of the building so given.

            (c)            The structural elements or components used in any basement which is not naturally ventilated shall comply with the requirements contained in column 7 of Table 5.

            (d)            For the purposes of this rule any basement which is naturally ventilated shall be construed as being an additional storey to the building concerned and any structural elements or components used in such basement shall comply with the requirements contained in columns 3 to 6, as the case may be, of Table 5.

            (e)            No unprotected steel shall be permitted in the structure in any basement.

            ( f )            Notwithstanding the requirements contained in paragraph (b) it shall be permissible for structural components to be of—

            (i)            unprotected steel—

            (aa)            In any single storey building;

            (bb)            in any double storey building where the occupancy is classified A3, A4, A5, B2, B3, C2, D2, D3, D4, G1, H4, J2, J3 or J4;

            (cc)            in the top storey of any building where the floor of such top storey is a concrete slab and such building does not exceed 15 m in height and is of an occupancy classified B3, D3, D4, G1, J3 or J4;

            (ii)            timber construction complying with SABS 082 that has a fire resistance of not less than 30 minutes where the occupancy of the building is classified G1, H3 or H4: Provided that in the case of any such occupancy the timber construction shall not exceed two storeys in height.

            (g)            Any perforated floor type or any mezzanine floor less than 100 m2 in area shall not be considered to be a structural element or component.

Table 5—Stability of structural elements or components

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7         

Occupancy            Class of occupancy            Stability, minutes          

                        Single storey building            Double storey building            3–10 storey building            11

storeys and over            Basement in any building

Entertainment and public assembly            A1            30            60            120            120            120     

Theatrical and indoor sport            A2            30            60            120            120            120     

Places of instruction            A3            30            30            90            120            120     

Worship            A4            30            60            90            120            120     

Outdoor sport            A5            30            30            60            90            120     

High risk commercial service  B1            60            60            120            180            120     

Moderate risk commercial service  B2            30            60            120            120            120     

Low risk commercial service  B3            30            30            90            120            120     

Exhibition hall            C1            60            90            120            120            120     

Museum            C2            30            60            90            120            120     

High risk industrial            D1            60            90            120            180            240     

Moderate risk industrial            D2            30            60            90            120            180     

Low risk industrial            D3            30            30            60            120            120     

Plant room            D4            30            30            60            90            120     

Places of detention            E1            60            60            90            120            120     

Hospital            E2            60            90            120            180            120     

Other institutional (residential)            E3            60            60            120            180            120     

Large shop            F1            60            90            120            180            120     

Small shop            F2            30            60            120            180            120     

Wholesalers’ store     F3            60            90            120            120            120     

Offices G1            30            30            60            120            120     

Hotel    H1            30            60            90            120            120     

Dormitory            H2            30            30            60            120            120     

Domestic residence            H3            30            30            60            120            120     

Detached dwelling house            H4            30            30            60            NA            120     

Hish risk storage J1            60            90            120            180            240     

Moderate risk storage J2            30            60            90            120            180     

Low risk storage J3            30            30            90            90            120     

Parking garage            J4            30            30            60            90            120     

Note: NA = Not applicable.

 

TT8.   Tenancy separating elements.—Any separating element between tenancies where the occupancy is classified H1, H2 or H3 shall have a fire resistance of not less than 30 minutes.

TT9.   Partition walls and partitions

TT9.1   Any partition wall in any occupancy classified E1, E2 or E3 shall have a fire resistance of not less than 60 minutes and any such wall in any occupancy classified G1, H2, H3 or H4 shall have a fire resistance of not less than 20 minutes.

TT9.2   In any building classified H3 or H4—

            (a)            any wall between any garage and any habitable room shall have the same fire resistance as that specified for the internal walls of such building;

            (b)            any door between such garage and such room shall be a solid timber or solid timber core door not less than 40 mm in thickness; and

            (c)            any roof space shall be divided by the vertical extension of such wall to the underside of the roof covering.

TT9.3   Any partition walls or partitions erected on any storey above the third storey of any building shall be non-combustible or shall not contribute a fire load of more than 5 kg/m2 of floor area in a division.

TT10.   Protection of openings

TT10.1   Where an opening in any external wall of any division is less than 1 m measured horizontally or vertically from an opening in another division, a 500 mm projection from such wall shall be constructed between such openings and such projection shall have a fire resistance of not less than half that required for the element separating the divisions concerned: Provided that any other equivalent means of fire protection which ensures that the flame travel path from one opening to another is not less than 1 m shall be permitted.

TT10.2   Where there is an opening in any wall required to have a fire resistance of 60 minutes or more such opening shall be provided with a fire door or fire shutter of the class given in column 3 of Table 6: Provided that this requirement shall not apply—

            (a)            to any opening for the entrance to a lift;

            (b)            where such opening, not being an opening contemplated in subrule TT27.2, gives access to a safe area outside the building; or

            (c)            in the case of any service shaft that is fire stopped at every floor level.

Table 6—Classes of fire doors or fire shutters

 

1          2            3         

Type of wall            Required minimum fire resistance of wall, minutes            Class of fire door or fire shutter       

Occupancy separation            60            A        

            120            B         

Divisional separation            60            A        

            120            D (or two C doors with approval) 

Emergency route    120            B         

 

TT10.3   Any fire door or fire shutter shall satisfy the requirements contained in SABS 1253.

TT10.4   Any fire door or fire shutter shall be fitted with an approved self-closing or automatic closing device.

TT10.5   Any fire door which is required to have a specific fire resistance may be replaced by two separate fire doors which shall be positioned apart not less than 1,5 times the width of any leaf of such door: Provided that the sum of the fire resistances of such separate doors shall not be less than the fire resistance required for the first-mentioned door.

TT10.6   Any hinged fire doors installed in terms of subrule TT10.5 shall open in the same direction and be hinged on the same side.

TT11.   Raised access and suspended floors of combustible material

TT11.1   Except in the case of any building classified H3 or G1 which does not exceed 2 storeys in height or in the case of any building classified H4, no suspended floor, not being a mezzanine floor, shall be permitted to be of combustible material unless such floor has ground directly below it or is not more than 50 mm above a non-combustible slab: Provided that where the elements used for the construction of an access floor have been favourably evaluated for such use by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR, such access floor shall be permitted.

TT11.2   (a)  The void under an access floor shall not be connected to any space in another division unless such connecting opening is protected with a fire door, fire shutter or fire damper having the same fire resistance as the division separating element.

(b)  Any void below a raised access floor shall be divided by fire stops into areas of not more than 300 m2 or shall be protected by a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

(c)  Any such void used as an artificial ventilation plenum shall comply with the requirements contained in subrule TT43.5.

TT12.   Roof assemblies and coverings

TT12.1   Where a roof of any part of a building meets any wall of a higher part of such building and such wall has any openings in any position within 10 m above and 5 m to either side of such roof, such roof shall, for a distance of not less than 5 m from such wall, have the fire resistance required for a division separating wall for the occupancy in question.

TT12.2   Where any combustible roof covering material including thatch, shingles and bitumenized felt on boarding is used and the plan area of such roof is more than 20 m2, the distance between the building so covered and any boundary of the site on which such building is situated shall be not less than 4,5 m.

TT12.3   Where any roof covering includes individual small areas of combustible material, the total area of which is not more than 5% of the roof area, and where—

            (a)            no such individual area is more than 20 m2 such roof covering shall not be considered a combustible roof covering: Provided that—

            (i)            where the slope of the roof does not exceed 60° there shall be a minimum distance of 1 m between any two such areas;

            (ii)            where the slope of the roof is in excess of 60° there shall be a minimum distance of 1 m measured horizontally and 3 m measured along the slope of such roof between any two such areas.

            (b)            any such individual area in a roof over any shopping mall exceeds 20 m2, and may constitute an element of danger to the public, such material shall be permitted only where it is the subject of a favourable assessment from the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR.

TT12.4   Any combustible waterproof membrane in contact with a concrete slab shall, for the purposes of this rule, be considered non-combustible.

TT12.5   (a)  Where roof space is formed between any ceiling and any roof covering, such space shall be divided by means of non-combustible fire-stops into areas of not more than 300 m2 and the distance between such fire-stops shall be not more than 30 m: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where such roof space and the room below are protected by a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

(b)  Any such roof space used as an air-conditioning or artificial ventilation system plenum shall comply with the requirements contained in subrule TT43.5.

(c)  In the case of any occupancy classified H3 the walls separating dwelling units shall be extended and any such extension shall—

            (i)            have the same fire resistance as the wall supporting it;

            (ii)            be taken to the underside of any non-combustible roof or roof covering or any concrete slab below a combustible roof covering, as the case may be; and

            (iii)            be taken to not less than 300 mm above any combustible roof covering other than one laid on concrete.

TT13.   Ceilings

TT13.1   In any building not being a building classified H4, combustible material shall not be used for any suspended ceiling: Provided that—

            (a)            solid timber;

            (b)            combustible material that has been favourably evaluated by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR;

            (c)            air supply or return air intake grilles of combustible material where the sum of the area of all such grilles forms not more than 5% of the total area of such ceiling and the overall area of any individual grille is not more than 0,09 m2,

shall be permitted.

TT13.2   Where in terms of the proviso to subrule TT13.1 combustible material is used in any suspended ceiling in a building, the maximum area of any division in which such ceiling is situated shall be not more than one quarter of the relevant division area given in Table 3 for the occupancy classification in question: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where any such building is—

            (a)            not more than three storeys in height; or

            (b)            provided with a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

TT13.3   Where the space between any suspended ceiling and any structural floor above such ceiling is used as a plenum for any air-conditioning or artificial ventilation system such space shall be divided by non-combustible fire-stops into areas of not more than 300 m2 and the distance between such fire-stops shall be not more than 30 m: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where such space and the room below are protected by a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

TT14.   Floor coverings

TT14.1   Where any combustible material, not being a material contemplated in subrule TT14.2 or TT14.3, is used as a floor covering in any building, the maximum area of any division in which such floor covering is used shall be not more than one quarter of the relevant division area given in Table 3 for the occupancy classification in question: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where any such building is—

            (a)            not more than three storeys in height; or

            (b)            provided with a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

TT14.2   In any building any fitted carpet shall be permitted where such carpet is of a type of which a representative specimen, when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part IV, has a classification not inferior to that specified in Table 7 for the particular occupancy concerned: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in the case of a fitted carpet laid in any occupancy classified H4.

TT14.3   In any building any cork, timber or any resilient floor covering shall be permitted where such covering is fully adhered to the substrate.

Table 7—Required classifications for fitted floor covering

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

            Basement of building of any height            Single and double storey buildings            Building exceeding two storeys Building of any height    

Class of occupancy            Any floor area except that contemplated

in column 5 or 6          Feeder

routes            Emergency routes        

            USP or SP        USP            SP            USP            SP                               

A1       2            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A2       2            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A3       2            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A4       2            3            3            3            4            2            1         

B1        2            3            4            3            4            3            1         

B2        2            4            5            3            4            3            1         

B3        3            4            5            4            5            3            1         

C1       3            3            4            3            4            2            1         

C2       3            3            4            3            4            2            1         

D1       NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

D2       2            4            5            3            4            3            1         

D3       2            4            5            4            5            3            1         

D4       NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

E1        NC            3            3            3            3            2            1         

E2        NC            3            3            3            3            2            1         

E3        NC            3            3            3            3            1            1         

F1        3            4            5            3            4            2            1         

F2        3            4            5            3            4            2            1         

F3        3            4            5            3            4            2            1         

G1       3            4            5            4            5            3            1         

H1       1            4            5            4            5            3            1         

H2       1            4            5            2            4            3            1         

H3       1            5            5            3            5            3            1         

J1         NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

J2         NC            NC            3            NC            3            2            1         

J3         2            3            4            2            3            2            1         

J4         NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

NC = Non-combustible material only.

SP = Protected by a sprinkler system.

USP = Not protected by a sprinkler system.

Note: Table refers only to those areas actually used for the occupancies given.  

 

TT15.   Wall finishes

TT15.1   Where, in any building, any combustible material not being a material contemplated in the proviso to subrule TT15.2, is used as a finish on any wall the maximum area of the division in which such wall is situated shall be not more than one quarter of the relevant division area given in Table 3: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where such building is—

            (a)            not more than three storeys in height; or

            (b)            provided with a fixed automatic fire-fighting system.

TT15.2   Any combustible wall lining or decorative finish, except where used in any building classified H4, shall be of a type of which a representative specimen, when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part III, has a classification not inferior to that specified in Table 8 for the occupancy concerned: Provided that this requirement shall not apply where the thickness of such finish is less than 0,5 mm and such finish adheres fully to a non-combustible material.

TT15.3   The use of combustible material shall be permitted for any door leaf or for trim to any door frame or window frame or for any pelmet, chair, rail, picture rail or skirting.

Table 8—Required classifications for wall finishes

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

            Basement of building of any height            Single and double storey buildings            Building exceeding two storeys Building of any height    

Class of occupancy            Any floor area except that contemplated

in column 5 or 6          Feeder routes            Emergency routes        

            SP            USP            SP            USP            SP                               

A1       1            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A2       1            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A3       1            3            3            3            3            2            1         

A4       1            4            4            3            4            2            1         

B1        2            3            4            3            4            3            1         

B2        2            3            4            3            4            3            1         

B3        3            4            5            4            5            3            1         

C1       3            3            4            3            4            2            1         

C2       3            3            4            3            4            2            1         

D1       NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

D2       2            3            4            3            4            3            1         

D3       2            4            5            4            5            3            1         

D4       NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

E1        NC            2            2            2            2            2            1         

E2        NC            2            2            2            2            2            1         

E3        NC            2            2            2            2            2            1         

F1        3            2            3            2            3            2            1         

F2        3            2            3            2            3            2            1         

F3        3            2            3            2            3            2            1         

G1       3            4            5            4            5            3            1         

H1       Not            3            5            3            5            3            1         

H2            permitted        3            4            2            4            3            1         

H3                   4            5            3            4            3            1         

J1         NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

J2         NC            NC            3            NC            3            2            1         

J3         2            3            4            2            3            2            1         

J4         NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC            NC     

 

 

NC = Non-combustible material only.

SP = Protected by a sprinkler system.

USP = Not protected by a sprinkler system.

Note: Table refers only to those areas actually used for the occupancies given.  

 

TT16  Provision of escape routes

TT16.1   One or more escape routes shall be provided in any building.

TT16.2   Where the travel distance, measured to the nearest escape door, is not more than 45 m, any such escape route—

            (a)            (i)            in any single-storey building;

            (ii)            in any dwelling unit having such escape door at ground level; or

            (iii)            in and from any dwelling unit at first floor level where such dwelling unit is served by an individual stairway to ground level;

                        shall not be required to include any emergency route and, in the case of any dwelling unit contemplated in this subrule, such escape route shall not be required to comply with the requirements of rules TT17 to TT30 inclusive.

            (b)            in any building of two or three storeys in height shall not be required to include any emergency route: Provided that where such building is—

            (i)            any building of two storeys in height where the population of the upper storey is more than 25 persons; or

            (ii)            any building of three storeys in height;

                        such building shall be provided with not less than two such escape routes;

            (c)            in any building of a height of more than three storeys shall be provided with not less than two such escape routes and—

            (i)            an emergency route shall form part of each such escape route;

            (ii)            any such emergency route shall include any stairway forming part of the escape route and also that part of the escape route from the lower end of the stairway to any escape door.

TT16.3   Where, in any building, the travel distance measured to the nearest escape door is more than 45 m, not less than two such escape routes shall be provided and an emergency route shall form part of each such escape route.

TT16.4   Where, in terms of subrule TT16.2 or TT16.3, emergency routes are required in any building—

            (a)            such emergency routes shall be entirely independent from one another and so situated that should any one of such routes become unusable or inaccessible not less than one other such route may reasonably be expected to remain accessible and usable;

            (b)            the travel distance measured to the nearest access door shall be not more than 45 m;

            (c)            the path of travel to any access door shall be along a feeder route;

            (d)            any such feeder route shall lead in two different directions to two or more independent emergency routes;

            (e)            the exit door from any room shall lead directly into a feeder route: Provided that—

            (i)            such exit door may lead into a dead-end corridor where the total distance to be travelled from the furthest point in such room to an access door or to a feeder route is not more than 15 m; or

            (ii)            such exit door may lead into any other room, where such other room is within the same tenancy and the exit door from such other room leads into a feeder route.

TT17.   Exit doors

TT17.1   (a)  Where the population of any room is not more than 25 persons the width of any exit door shall be not less than 800 mm.

(b)  Any classroom, lecture room or boardroom that has a population of more than 50 persons or any other room that has a population of more than 25 persons shall have not less than two exit doors, and such doors—

            (i)            shall open in the direction of travel along the escape route; and

            (ii)            shall have an aggregate width of not less than the required width for an escape route for such population, as contemplated in rule TT21:

Provided that where such population is more than 240 persons three or more exit doors, as may be required, shall be installed.

TT17.2   In any room in a building where the occupancy is classified A1, A2, A3, A4, C1, C2, E2, E3, F1 or F3, any exit door shall open in the direction of travel along the escape route: Provided that in any occupancy classified A3 where the population of the room is less than 50 persons, such door may open into such room.

TT18.   Feeder routes

TT18.1   Where any corridor in a building forms part of a feeder route the walls, partition walls or partitions enclosing such corridor shall be constructed of non-combustible materials or when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part III, shall have a surface fire index of not more than 2,0.

TT18.2   Any door in the path of travel along any feeder route shall be of the double swing type and such door shall not be provided with any means of locking: Provided that where for security reasons it is necessary to lock such door an approved alternative means of escape shall be provided.

TT18.3   The requirements contained in subrules TT19.6, TT19.7 and TT19.8 and in rules TT20 and TT21 shall apply mutatis mutandis to any feeder routes.

TT19.   Emergency routes

TT19.1   (a)  Any wall enclosing an emergency route shall have a fire resistance of not less than 120 minutes or the relevant time required for stability of structural elements or components given in Table 5, whichever is the lesser, after being subjected to two impacts with a 30 kg mass sand-bag swung from a vertical height of 1,5 m.

(b)  Any floor or ceiling of an emergency route shall have a fire resistance of not less than 120 minutes or the relevant time required for the stability of structural elements or components as given in Table 5, whichever is the lesser.

TT19.2   The finish of the floor of any escape route shall have a slip resistant surface, shall be free from any projections, indentations, hollows or covering which may cause a person to trip and such finish or any covering applied to such floor shall be of a classification not inferior to that given in Table 7.

TT19.3   Any emergency route shall consist of one or more of the following components so arranged that each such component discharges directly to another component;

            (a)            Doors;

            (b)            internal or external passages;

            (c)            internal or external stairways or ramps;

            (d)            lobbies, foyers or vestibules.

TT19.4   The last component of any emergency route shall discharge at ground level directly to a street or public place or to an approved open air space leading to a street or public place.

TT19.5   Subject to the requirements of subrule TT19.6, any access door or any other door, being a component of an emergency route shall be a hinged door which shall open in the direction of egress from the building.

TT19.6   Any revolving or sliding door or automatically operated door or shutter may form part of an emergency route where such door or shutter is positioned at the end of such route discharging to a safe area: Provided that—

            (a)            there shall be, adjacent to such door or shutter, an alternative hinged door which shall comply with all rules relating to hinged doors in emergency routes; or

            (b)            any such automatically operated sliding door or shutter shall be equipped with an approved fail-safe system and any such revolving door shall be of an approved collapsible type.

TT19.7   No door giving access to an emergency route shall when opened obstruct the progress of persons using such route.

TT19.8   Any door frame, door leaf when in the open position, shall not protrude into the width of the emergency route by more than 100 mm on either side.

TT19.9   Any locking devices fitted to any access door or escape door in any emergency route shall be of a type approved by the local authority.

TT19.10   Any door fitted with a locking device as contemplated in subrule TT19.9 shall be clearly indicated on the fire plan.

TT20.   Dimensions of components of escape routes

TT20.1   (a)  The width of any escape route within any room having a population of more than 25 persons shall be not less than 800 mm.

(b)  The width of any part of an escape route or any component thereof between any exit door and the end of such route shall be not less than 1,1 m.

TT20.2   The width of any escape route shall not decrease in the direction of emergency travel: Provided that in the case of a lobby, foyer or vestibule that is wider than required for such route the exit doors therefrom shall have a width not less than that required for such route.

TT20.3   The travel distance shall be measured along the centre line of the shortest natural unobstructed path of travel within a room and along any escape route and where such route is via a ramp or staircase the measurement shall be along the plan centre line of such ramp or staircase.

TT20.4   Any escape route shall be provided throughout its length with a clear vertical headroom of 2 m and in any lobby, foyer or vestibule the minimum room height shall be not less than 2,4 m.

TT21.   Width of escape routes

TT21.1   (a)  The population of any room or storey or portion thereof shall be the actual number of persons in such room, storey or portion thereof during normal use or shall be calculated from the criteria given in regulation A21.

(b)  Where more than one escape route discharges to a common component the width of such common component and any following components situated along the direction of egress shall be calculated by taking into account the population discharging into such common component: Provided that in the case of any stairway, only the population of the most heavily populated storey served thereby shall be deemed to discharge into such stairway.

TT21.2   In any building the width of any escape route to be provided in respect of any room, storey or portion thereof shall be not less than that given in Table 9 for the population concerned: Provided that—

            (a)            no individual escape route shall be designed for a population of more than 190 persons;

            (b)            where there are two or more emergency routes one such route shall be discounted in determining the widths required for the remainder.

Table 9—Width of escape routes

 

1          2         

Maximum number of persons            Minimum width, mm    

120      1100   

130      1200   

140      1300   

150      1400   

160      1500   

170      1600   

180      1700   

190      1800   

 

TT21.3   The aggregate width of escape routes shall be so distributed that the minimum widths of individual routes serving any room, storey or portion thereof shall be as nearly equal to each other as is practicable.

TT22.   Basements.—In any building not classified as D4 or H4 any storey below the ground storey shall be served by not fewer than two separate emergency route stairways: Provided that where such storey is used for the parking of motor vehicles one such emergency route stairway may be replaced by a motor vehicle ramp.

TT23.   Stairways and other changes of level along escape routes

TT23.1   The storeys of any duplex dwelling unit may be served by a single stairway within such dwelling unit: Provided that such dwelling unit shall have access to an escape route as required by these rules.

TT23.2   At any storey level the entrance to any stairway forming part of an emergency route shall be not closer than 5 m to the entrance to any other such stairway.

TT23.3   Any stairway forming part of an emergency route shall discharge into a corridor or foyer forming part of such emergency route or into a street, public place or approved open space.

TT23.4   Any stairway forming part of an emergency route from any storey above ground level shall not have direct access to any basement.

TT23.5  No escalator shall form a component of any emergency route.

TT23.6   Where any stairway forms part of an emergency route such stairway shall, throughout its length, be provided with a handrail on each side.

TT23.7   Notwithstanding the requirements for minimum width contained in subrule MM2.1, the width of any stairway forming part of an emergency route shall be not less than that given in Table 9 for the population concerned and such width shall be not more than 1,8 m: Provided that any handrail may project into such width by an amount of not more than 100 mm.

TT23.8   The distance between any change in floor level and the centre line of a doorway in an emergency route or between two changes of floor level in such route shall be not less than 1,5 m.

TT23.9   No curved or winding stairs shall form part of any emergency route.

TT23.10   The rise and tread of any step forming part of an emergency route shall comply with the requirements contained in subrules MM2.3 and MM2.4, and in addition such step shall have solid treads and risers: Provided that in the case of any occupancy classified D4 or in the case of any external stairway contemplated in rule TT27 such risers may be omitted.

TT23.11   Any change in the level of the floor of any emergency route other than by a stairway between storeys shall be effected by means of a ramp or steps: Provided that—

            (a)            no such ramp shall have a slope exceeding 1 in 8; and

            (b)            in the case of steps, not fewer than three steps shall be provided.

TT24.   Ventilation of stairways in an emergency route.—Any enclosed stairway which is a component of any emergency route in any building not exceeding 30 m in height and where such stairway is not pressurized, shall be—

            (a)            provided with a window or other opening not less than 1 m2 in area for ventilation to the outside of the building at each storey level; or

            (b)            ventilated by means of a roof ventilator having an effective area of not less than 25% of the plan area of the stairwell and such ventilator shall be permanently open.

TT25.   Pressurization of stairways in an emergency route

TT25.1   (a)  Any enclosed stairway which is a component of an emergency route in any building exceeding a height of 30 m or having a basement more than 10 m in depth shall be provided with an approved pressurization system which shall be capable of pressurizing the stairway to not less than 25 Pa with any three doors open and not more than 50 Pa with all doors closed and shall either run continuously or come into operation automatically in the event of a fire in such building: Provided that in the case of any building used exclusively for an occupancy classified H3 it shall not be required to be so pressurized except where such building exceeds a height of 50 m.

(b)  Where any pressurization system is installed in any building of a height less than that given in paragraph (a) such system shall be capable of pressurizing such stairway to within the range given in paragraph (a).

TT25.2   Air for such pressurization shall not be drawn from the inside of the building.

TT25.3   Any pressurization system shall be provided with an approved emergency power supply system independent of the normal mains supply, which shall be capable of operating safely for a minimum period of two hours after the activation of such pressurization system.

TT26.   Openings in floors

TT26.1   In any building, not being a building classified H4, any opening, including an opening occupied by a stairway or escalator not forming part of an escape route, shall not connect more than—

            (a)            two storeys if such building is not protected by a sprinkler system; or

            (b)            four storeys if such building is protected by a sprinkler system.

TT26.2   At any landing of such stairway or escalator system a sign shall be displayed indicating the direction to at least one of the escape routes.

TT27.   External stairways and passages

TT27.1  No external stairway shall be permitted to be a component of any emergency route of any building which exceeds 18 m in height unless such stairway is, subject to the requirements contained in rule TT24, partially enclosed through its length.

TT27.2   No window, door or other unprotected opening in any facade of a building shall be closer than 3 m to any access door or any open stairway forming part of an escape route unless such opening is protected by a door or fire shutter having a stability rating of 30 minutes when tested in accordance with SABS 1253: Provided that—

            (a)            this requirement shall not apply to any window not exceeding 0,3 m2 in area, serving any room containing a WC pan or any bathroom, cloakroom or kitchen;

            (b)            any solid timber door of not less than 40 mm in thickness shall be deemed to comply with the requirement for a stability rating of 30 minutes.

TT28.   Lobbies, foyers and vestibules

TT28.1   Where any lobby, foyer or vestibule (hereinafter referred to as a “lobby”) is a component of one or more escape routes such lobby shall have the combined width of all escape routes discharging into it or be 33% wider than the width calculated on the basis of the population which is to pass through it, whichever is the greater.

TT28.2   Any display in such a lobby shall only be by means of a fixed board or fixed display case which shall not protrude more than 150 mm into such lobby and no other object shall be permitted to be placed in such lobby.

TT28.3   Any glass used for such display case shall be safety glass.

TT28.4   No trading or business activity shall be carried on in such lobby except from a fixed area prescribed by the local authority.

TT29.   Markings and signposting

TT29.1   (a)  Any building having emergency routes shall be clearly marked and signposted to indicate the direction to be travelled in the case of any emergency, and the size and positioning of the required marks and signs shall be subject to any directive issued by the local authority.

(b)  The exit door of any room which has a population of less than 25 persons shall not be required to be so marked.

(c)  Where any room has more than one exit door, any such door used for normal egress from such room shall not be required to be so marked.

TT29.2   Any mark or sign contemplated in this rule shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 1186: Provided that in the case of any auditorium or hall a sign reading “EXIT”/”UITGANG” shall be displayed over any exit doors of such auditorium or hall, and such sign shall have letters not less than 150 mm in height.

TT29.3   (a)  When any building is occupied any mark or sign contemplated in subrule TT29.1 (a) shall be illuminated to an intensity of not less than 50 lux.

(b)  In the case of occupancies classified A2, E1, E2, E3 or in any building normally occupied during the hours of darkness and having a population exceeding 100 persons, such marks or signs shall in the event of the failure of the normal mains supply be so illuminated for not less than 120 minutes.

(c)  The emergency power supply to the lighting of such marks or signs shall be protected against the effects of fire for a period of not less than 120 minutes.

TT29.4  The local authority may, where deemed necessary for the safety of occupants, require the provision of signs prohibiting exit.

TT30.   Lighting of feeder and emergency routes

TT30.1   Any emergency route shall be provided with artificial lighting and at any time when the building containing such route is occupied there shall be a minimum illuminance of 50 lux on a horizontal plane 100 mm above the floor.

TT30.2   In any building having a population of more than 100 persons an adequate number of emergency light sources shall be installed in such emergency route and such light sources shall be connected to an approved emergency power supply which is—

            (a)            independent of the mains supply; and

            (b)            capable, in the event of any failure of the lighting contemplated in subrule TT30.1, of providing power supply to such emergency light sources for not less than 60 minutes.

TT30.3   Such emergency light sources shall be so located that—

            (a)            the horizontal illuminance at any point on the centre line of such emergency route is not less than 0,3 lux; and

            (b)            a uniformity ratio of not more than 40:1 is obtained along such emergency route.

TT30.4   Any feeder route in any basement or in any building classified Al, A2, A3, A4, C1, C2, E2, E3, F1 or F3, shall be provided with emergency lighting as contemplated in subrule TT30.2: Provided that in any occupancy classified A3 having a population of less than 50 persons, such feeder route shall not be required to be provided with such lighting.

TT31.   Fire detection and alarm systems

TT31.1   Any building containing an occupancy classified—

            (a)            E2 or E3, irrespective of height or floor area;

            (b)            F1, with a floor area of more than 500 m2; or

            (c)            H1 or H2, with a height of more than 8 m;

shall be equipped with a fire detection system and an emergency evacuation communication system complying with SABS 0139.

TT31.2   All occupied areas within any building which exceeds 30 m in height or contains any storey exceeding 5 000 m2 in floor area, other than a building contemplated in subrule TT31.1, shall be equipped with a fire detection and manually activated fire alarm system and an emergency evacuation communication system complying with SABS 0139.

TT31.3   Any building classified A1, A2, C1, C2 or F1 shall have a manually activated audible alarm system in accordance with SABS 0139.

TT32.   Provision of fire-fighting equipment

TT32.1   Any fire-fighting equipment in any building shall be so installed as to be ready at all times for its purpose.

TT32.2   The disposition of such fire-fighting equipment shall be clearly visible or shall be indicated by symbolic signs which shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 1186.

TT32.3   The owner of any building shall keep available for inspection by the local authority a record of the maintenance of fire-fighting and protection equipment.

TT33.   Water reticulation for fire-fighting purposes

TT33.1   Any rational design of a fire installation shall make provision for water to be supplied in the quantity and at the pressure and rate of flow required by subrule WW5.1.

TT33.2   Where such fire installation is not the subject of a rational design it shall comply with the requirements contained in rule WW5.

TT34.   Hose reels

TT34.1   Hose reels for the purposes of fire fighting shall be installed in any building of two or more storeys in height or in any single-storey building of more than 250 m2 in floor area at a rate of 1 hose reel for every 500 m2 or part thereof of floor area of any storey: Provided that such hose reels shall not be required in any building classified H4 or in any dwelling unit in an occupancy classified H3 where such unit is provided with independent access to ground level.

TT34.2   Any hose reel installed in such building shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 543.

TT34.3   Any hose reel so installed shall be positioned to ensure that the end of the hose will reach any point in the area to be protected.

TT34.4   Any hose reel installed in any building shall—

            (a)            bear, in a prominent position on the reel disc facing the user, the mark of standardization relative to the requirements contained in SABS 543, as contemplated in section 14 of the Standards Act, 1982 (Act Repealed by Act 29 of 1993.30 of 1982); or

            (b)            where it cannot so bear such mark, be clearly marked by the South African Bureau of Standards to indicate that it has been evaluated by and is acceptable to the South African Bureau of Standards.

TT34.5  Where a satisfactory water supply and pressure are not available, two fire extinguishers complying with the requirements contained in rule TT37 shall be provided in place of each required hose reel.

TT35.   Hydrants

TT35.1   Hydrants in positions subject to direction by the local authority shall be provided in—

            (a)            any building exceeding 12 m in height; and

            (b)            any occupancy classified B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, D2, E1, E2, E3, F1, F3, H1, J1, J2, J3 or J4 of any height and of a total floor area exceeding 1000 m2.

TT35.2   Any hydrants required in terms of subrule TT35.1 shall be provided at the rate of not less than one per 1000 m2 or part thereof of total floor area and not less than one per storey of such building or occupancy, as the case may be, and shall be distributed in such a manner that the fire hose contemplated in subrule TT35.3 will reach to every part of the relevant area.

TT35.3   (a)  Any hydrant shall, where required by the local authority, be provided with a length of appropriate fire hose 24 m or 30 m in length together with couplings and a 16 mm internal diameter nozzle, all of which shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 1128: Part II.

(b)  Such hose and nozzle shall when positioned in the open air or in any factory building be suitably housed in a cupboard: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in any occupancy classified J4.

TT35.4   In any permanent amusement park or exhibition ground, shopping centre or group housing, cluster housing, or town house complex there shall be installed ground or raised hydrants so placed that no point in such amusement park or exhibition ground or shopping centre or in any building in such housing complex shall be at a greater distance than 90 m from any hydrant.

TT35.5   Any hydrant required in terms of this rule shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 1128: Part I.

TT36.   Sprinkler systems

TT36.1   (a)  In addition to the requirements contained in rule TT4 and subrule TT26.1 (b) an approved sprinkler system shall be installed—

            (i)            in any building exceeding 30 m in height except where such building is exclusively of an occupancy classified G1 where the division size is not greater than 500 m2, or of an occupancy classified H3;

            (ii)            in any basement storey which exceeds 500 m2 in floor area and such storey is not naturally ventilated; and

            (iii)            in any other storey which exceeds 500 m2 in total floor area and such storey is not provided with breakable or openable panels as contemplated in subrule TT42.1, suitable for smoke ventilation.

(b)  Any other approved fixed means of automatic fire extinguishment may be substituted for an approved system required in terms of these rules.

(c)  In the case of any strong room, record room or security vault such a system need not be provided.

TT36.2   Any concealed space, not being a roof space contemplated in subrule TT12.5, which has a clear height exceeding 800 mm and a total area of compartment of more than 100 m2 above any ceiling or a total area of compartment of more than 300 m2 below any raised floor shall be equipped with a sprinkler system.

TT36.3   Any sprinkler system shall be fitted with a twin coupling for the attachment of a fire-pump: Provided that—

            (a)            such coupling shall be painted lime yellow;

            (b)            the pressure exerted by such pump shall be not more than 1 000 kPa; and

            (c)            such pressure limitation shall be clearly marked on such coupling.

TT37.   Portable fire extinguishers

TT37.1   Any building containing an occupancy given in Table 10 shall, for the relevant occupancy and floor area, be provided with portable fire extinguishers, as prescribed in such table, in approved positions.

TT37.2   Any local authority may specify the type of portable fire-extinguisher to be provided and may require that a number of fire-extinguishers shall be installed in excess of the number indicated in Table 10 if in its opinion any particular hazards or risks warrant such increase.

TT37.3   Any approved portable fire extinguisher installed in a building shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 810, SABS 889 or SABS 1151, as the case may be, and shall be installed, maintained and serviced in accordance with SABS 0105.

TT37.4   Such portable fire extinguisher shall bear the mark of standardization as contemplated in section 14 of the Standards Act, 1982 (Act Repealed by Act 29 of 1993.30 of 1982) or where it cannot so bear such mark be clearly marked by the South African Bureau of Standards to indicate that it has been evaluated by and is acceptable to the South African Bureau of Standards.

Table 10 – Provision of portable extinguishers

 

1          2         

Classification of occupancies            Number of portable fire extinguishers relative to floor area     

B1, D1, D2

J1, J2, J3            1 per 100 m2           

A1, A2, A3,

B2, C1, C2,

D3, E1, E2,

E3, F1, F2,

F3, G1, H1,

H2      

 

1 per 200 m2  

A4, A5, B3,

D4, H3, J4            1 per 400 m2           

 

TT37.5  The type of fire extinguisher shall, for the occupancy in which it is installed, have a capacity or mass rating as follows:

            (a)            For an occupancy classified A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, E1, E2, E3, F1, F2, F3, G1, H1, H2 or H3:

 

            (i)            Water type      9 l       

            (ii)            Foam type      9 l       

            (iii)            Carbon dioxide type            4,5 kg 

            (iv)            Dry chemical type            4,5 kg 

            (v)            Halogenated hydrocarbon type      2,5 kg 

 

            (b)            For an occupancy classified B1, B2, B3, C1, C2, D1, D2, D3, D4, J1, J2, J3 or J4:

 

            (i)            Water type      9 l       

            (ii)            Foam type      9 l       

            (iii)            Carbon dioxide type            9 kg    

            (iv)            Dry chemical type            9 kg    

            (v)            Halogenated hydrocarbon type      5 kg    

 

TT38.   Mobile fire extinguishers

TT38.1   Any fire extinguisher exceeding the capacities prescribed in the relevant specification SABS 810, SABS 889 or SABS 1151 and fitted with suitable wheels for transportation shall be deemed to be a mobile fire extinguisher.

TT38.2   An approved mobile fire extinguisher may replace half the portable fire extinguishers: Provided that—

            (a)            the capacity of any such mobile fire extinguisher shall be at least equal to the combined capacity of the number of portable fire extinguishers it replaces;

            (b)            it contains the same extinguishing medium as required for such portable extinguishers;

            (c)            it replaces such portable extinguishers only on the floor and within the division concerned;

            (d)            the floor area to be served by it does not exceed 500% of that given in Table 10 or 1000 m2, whichever is the lesser;

            (e)            the extinguishing medium complies with the appropriate requirements of SABS 810, SABS 889 or SABS 1151, as the case may be; and

            ( f )            such mobile fire extinguisher is kept in a readily accessible position.

TT39.   Fire stopping of inaccessible concealed spaces.—Where in any building there is any inaccessible concealed space with a maximum dimension of more than 5 m such space shall—

            (a)            be fire stopped whether it contains combustible material or not;

            (b)            where it is within any non-combustible building element, be fire stopped not less than every 5 m measured horizontally or vertically: Provided that this requirement shall not apply to the cavity of any masonry cavity wall;

            (c)            where it is within any combustible building element, be fire stopped not less than every 3 m measured in both directions.

TT40.   Protection in service shafts

TT40.1   The walls of any internal service shaft shall have a fire resistance of not less than the requirements for structural stability given in Table 5, subject to a maximum requirement of 120 minutes.

TT40.2   Where any vertical service shaft is provided in any building and such shaft does not contain any combustible material it shall be fire stopped at the level of every fifth storey above the bottom of such shaft.

TT40.3   Where such a shaft is so provided and it contains any combustible material it shall be fire stopped at the level of every storey above the bottom of such shaft.

TT40.4   Where any vertical service shaft is used for ventilation or it contains non-combustible plumbing or drainage services or is a non-combustible rubbish chute no fire stop shall be required within such shaft.

TT40.5   Where any horizontal service shaft passes through any separating element and such element is required to have a fire resistance, such shaft shall be fire stopped where it passes through such element.

TT40.6   Where any service penetrates a separating element such separating element shall be completely sealed around such service.

TT41.   Services in structural or separating elements

TT41.1   Any service pipe, conduit, duct, sleeve, cable or other equipment recessed into any structural or separating element which is required to have a fire resistance shall be set into such element in such manner that such fire resistance is not reduced to below the required fire resistance.

TT41.2   Any service that penetrates through any wall or floor where such wall or floor is required to have a fire resistance shall be sealed in such a manner that the fire shall not penetrate such wall or floor.

TT42.   Smoke control

TT42.1   Notwithstanding the requirements of subrule 004.3, any room of which the floor area is more than 500 m2 shall be provided with—

            (a)            a system of mechanical smoke ventilation; or

            (b)            roof ventilators or openable windows or panels to permit smoke ventilation and such roof ventilators or openable windows or panels shall—

            (i)            have an aggregate area of not less than 3% of the floor area of such room or, in the case of any single storey building where such room has an occupancy classified D2 or D3, not less than 1,5% of the floor area of such room;

            (ii)            be located in the roof or in the upper third of the walls, as the case may be, and be distributed in such a way that smoke will be evenly extracted from all parts of the room;

            (iii)            be designed to open automatically when activated by heat or smoke detectors or, where not so designed, shall be capable of being manually operated, without the use of special tools, from the floor of such room:

Provided that where such room is so situated that neither a roof space nor an external wall of the building form part of such room, such room shall be equipped with a system of mechanical smoke ventilation.

TT42.2   Where openable panels are provided on any building elevation for the purposes of smoke ventilation, the position of such panels shall be suitably marked on the outside of the building to permit easy identification by the fire services.

TT43.   Air-conditioning and ventilation systems

TT43.1   Any air-conditioning system or artificial ventilation system in any building shall be so designed to prevent the distribution of products of combustion in the event of a fire in such building.

TT43.2   Any air shaft or duct used for air-conditioning or artificial ventilation, including any internal or external insulation thereto and any flexible joint, shall be constructed of non-combustible material or material which has been favourably evaluated by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR as being suitable for such shaft, duct, joint or insulation: Provided that—

            (a)            approved combustible flexible connections may be used where the length of such connection does not exceed 1,5 m and such connection does not pass through any wall or floor which is required to have a specified fire resistance;

            (b)            approved combustible flexible joints not more than 250 mm in length may be used in any plant room where such plant room is protected by a smoke detection system.

TT43.3   A fire damper, which shall comply with the requirements contained in SABS 193, shall be provided in any air duct in any position where such duct passes through any required division or occupancy separating element or any element required for the enclosure of an emergency route or passes into any duct.

TT43.4   Any such fire damper shall—

            (a)            close automatically upon the operation of a suitably located sensing device actuated by an abnormal rise in the temperature or by the presence of smoke or combustion gases in the air duct;

            (b)            be provided with adequate access, the position of which shall be clearly marked, for inspection, maintenance and resetting of the mechanism;

            (c)            be so installed as to remain in position at the protected opening even if the air duct distorts during a fire; and

            (d)            be provided with an overriding fusible link.

TT43.5   (a)  Any plenum, excluding return air intakes, forming part of an air-conditioning or artificial ventilation system shall be constructed of non-combustible material or of a material which has been favourably evaluated by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards or the CSIR as being suitable for such construction: Provided that where the sum of the areas of all air supply and return air intake grilles in such plenum is not more than 5% of the area of surface of such plenum exposed to the room below and no individual grille has an overall area of more than 0,09 m2, such grilles may be of combustible material.

(b)  The supports of any plenum shall be non-combustible.

(c)  In any plenum system the fire stops, as contemplated in subrule TT12.5 and TT13.3, shall be constructed of steel baffle plates which shall close automatically upon the operation of approved sensing devices actuated when the temperature of the air in such space reaches 15°C above its design temperature or 45°C, whichever is the lesser.

(d)  No plenum system shall be used for storage or for the accommodation of people.

TT44.   No smoking signs

TT44.1   “No smoking” signs of approved size shall be prominently displayed in suitable positions in any division, occupancy, room or any other part of a building where flammable substances are dealt with, used or stored and on the outside of any door leading thereto.

TT44.2   “No smoking” signs shall be in accordance with the requirements contained in SABS 1186.

TT45.   Lift shafts

TT45.1   In any building of more than 10 m in height—

            (a)            any lift or bank of lifts shall be provided with a lift lobby at every level of discharge which shall be free of combustible material;

            (b)            such lobby shall be divided from the remainder of the floor area by means of walls having a fire resistance of not less than 30 minutes and any door in such walls shall be of an automatic or self-closing type which shall have all edges fitted with flexible seals to prevent the passage of smoke and air when in the closed position and which shall have, when tested in accordance with SABS 1253, a stability and integrity rating of not less than 30 minutes.

TT45.2   No access doors shall be within a lift lobby.

TT45.3   Any lift shaft shall have a fire resistance of not less than the requirements for structural stability given in Table 5, subject to a maximum requirement of 120 minutes, and shall be so designed that not more than four lifts are accommodated in any one subdivision of such shaft.

TT45.4   Where on any storey of a building any lift in a bank of lifts discharges into a division different from that into which the other lifts discharge such lift shall be accommodated in a separate shaft.

TT46.   Lift

TT46.1   No decorative finish or floor covering of lifts shall have a fire index of more than 2 when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part III or IV, as the case may be.

TT46.2   (a)  In any building the controls of any lift shall be so designed that in the event of fire such lift shall be brought automatically to the main entrance storey without stopping and shall remain there with its doors open.

(b)  The requirements of this subrule shall not apply to any building with classification of occupancy H3 or H4.

TT47.   Firemen’s lift

TT47.1   In any building exceeding 30 m in height there shall be provided at least one firemen’s lift to serve any storey including any basement.

TT47.2   Such firemen’s lift shall be in a separate shaft and have on each storey a lobby separated from any other lobby or space by walls and doors which shall have a fire resistance of not less than 120 minutes.

TT47.3   Such firemen’s lift shall—

            (a)            have internal dimensions of not less than 1,1 m wide by 2,1 m deep and have a clear door width of not less than 800 mm;

            (b)            be clearly identified as a firemen’s lift on every storey;

            (c)            be capable of being stopped at any storey and have access to all such storeys;

            (d)            be kept available for use at all times;

            (e)            be subject to independent control during an emergency;

            ( f )            continue to be workable during an emergency when all other lifts have been brought to the main entrance storey as contemplated in rule TT46;

            (g)            be provided with a source of emergency power which will enable such lift to operate together with its lights and extract fan for not less than 120 minutes in the event of failure of the mains supply; and

            (h)            be provided with means of oral communication to a control point or to a control room where such a room is provided.

TT48.   Stretcher lift

TT48.1   In any building exceeding three storeys in height where one or more lifts are installed at least one lift shall have dimensions 1,1 m wide by 2,1 m deep and the entrance to the lift shall be not less than 800 mm in width.

TT48.2   Where such building exceeds 30 m in height the power supply to the motor operating such stretcher lift shall be protected against the effect of fire for at least 120 minutes.

TT49.   Stage and backstage areas

TT49.1   The requirements contained in this rule shall apply to any stage or backstage area, including any area beneath any stage that communicates directly with such stage, in any theatre or other occupancy in which plays, operas or other productions necessitating the use of scenery take place: Provided that the requirements contained in subrules TT49.2, TT49.4, TT49.5 and TT49.6 shall not apply in the case of a stage in any school or church hall or other similar place used solely for the presentation of amateur productions, and shall not apply to any stage not having a fly gallery.

TT49.2   (a)  Any area contemplated in subrule TT49.1 shall be separated from any dressing room, auditorium, workshops, stores or any other area within the occupancy, by walls and floors which shall have a fire resistance of not less than 120 minutes, and any opening, other than the proscenium opening, in such wall or floor shall be protected by a Class B fire door or fire shutter.

(b)  No dressing room shall be at any level lower than the first basement storey.

TT49.3   Any proscenium opening shall be protected by a fire curtain which shall be—

            (a)            of rigid non-combustible construction capable of withstanding a lateral pressure of 500 Pa and such that a representative specimen of such fire curtain, when tested in accordance with the requirements contained in SABS 1253, shall meet the requirements of a Class D door;

            (b)            constructed to slide freely in non-combustible guide rails on both sides of the proscenium opening;

            (c)            so arranged that when fully closed it overlaps the proscenium wall, on the stage side, by not less than 450 mm at each side of such opening and 600 mm at the top and is closed at the bottom onto the stage floor which, if of combustible material, shall be not more than 38 mm thick over a non-combustible slab or wall;

            (d)            so arranged that in the case of a fire it will descend automatically and close such opening;

            (e)            so arranged and controlled that it can descend completely within 30 seconds and be so regulated that for the last 2 m of its descent it does not travel faster than 0,5 m/s; and

            ( f )            capable of being both manually and remotely operated:

Provided that in the case of a stage in any school or church hall or other similar place seating not more than 300 persons and which is used solely for the presentation of amateur productions, a heavy woollen or non-combustible fibre cloth curtain may be substituted for such fire curtain.

TT49.4   Any area contemplated in subrule TT49.1 shall comply with the following requirements:

            (a)            Any structure and any wall, partition, horizontal slab, roofing and ceiling material therein shall be of non-combustible material.

            (b)            Any fitted decorative material therein shall be non-combustible.

            (c)            Any stage floor may be of timber where the supports of such timber floor are supported by a non-combustible floor slab.

TT49.5   In any area contemplated in subrule TT49.1 the following fire protection equipment shall be provided:

            (a)            An automatic sprinkler system and an automatic drencher system to the stage side of the fire curtain so designed as to give adequate protection in the event of a fire.

            (b)            At the highest point of the roof over such area, an acceptable automatic roof ventilation system the effective aggregate area of opening of which shall be not less than 10% of such area and which shall also be capable of being manually operated.

            (c)            A direct communication with the local authority’s fire services;

            (d)            Manual alarms in the back stage area in suitable and easily accessible positions.

TT49.6   Any dressing room area shall have direct access to an emergency route.

TT50.   Seating arrangements in auditoria or halls and on grandstands

TT50.1   In any auditorium or hall or on any grandstand containing any seating—

            (a)            the seating and any aisles serving such seating shall be so arranged as to allow unobstructed movement to the escape routes from such auditorium, hall or grandstand;

            (b)            notwithstanding the requirements contained in rule TT16 no seat shall be more than 21 m from an escape door or an access door to an emergency route as measured along the route which a person occupying such seat may be expected to travel to arrive at such escape door or access door.

TT50.2   All seating on any grandstand or in any auditorium or hall not used for more than one purpose shall be fixed to the building: Provided that seating need not be so fixed in any auditorium or hall, or a box therein, which accommodates not more than 25 persons.

TT50.3   (a)  Notwithstanding the requirements contained in rule TT20, in this subrule—

            (i)            clearance between rows of seats means the distance as measured between plumblines from the rearmost part of any seat to the nearest part, including armrests if any, of the seat behind it: Provided that in the case of gravity-operated automatic tip-up seats such distance may be measured with the seats in the tipped-up position; and

            (ii)            where individual seats are not provided every 450 mm of seating shall be deemed to be a seat.

(b)  The clearance betweeen rows of seats in any auditorium or shall be not less than—

            (i)            300 mm where any person is not required to pass more than 14 seats to leave the row;

            (ii)            400 mm where any person is required to pass more than 14 seats but not more than 24 seats to leave the row; or

            (iii)            500 mm where any person is required to pass more than 24 seats to leave the row.

(c)  The clearance between rows of seats in outdoor grandstands, where backrests are provided to such seats, shall be not less than—

            (i)            300 mm where any person is required to pass not more than 20 seats to leave the row;or

            (ii)            400 mm where any person is required to pass more than 20 seats but not more than 40 seats to leave the row; or

            (iii)            500 mm where any person is required to pass more than 40 seats to leave the row;

and where backrests are not so provided, or on terraced seating, the minimum distance from the front edge of any seat to the front edge of the seat immediately in front of or behind such seat shall be not less than 675 mm.

TT50.4   (a)  Any aisle in any auditorium, hall or grandstand shall have a clear width of not less than 1,1 m or such greater width as contemplated for an emergency route in terms of rule TT21 for the population served, and the surface of the floor and any steps of such aisle shall be rendered suitably slip resistant and shall at all times be maintained in such slip-resistant condition.

(b)  Any cross-aisle shall discharge at both ends directly to an emergency route.

TT50.5   (a)  The gradient of any such aisle which is not level shall not exceed 1 in 8 and any stepped aisle shall not exceed an overall gradient of 1 in 3.

(b)  Steps along any such aisle shall be the full width of such aisle and shall be illuminated to a level of not less than 2 lux at tread level when normal lighting has been lowered and shall have uniform tread widths and risers so designed as to reduce the likelihood of any person stumbling.

TT50.6   Where any aisle crosses parallel to the rows of seats and the floor level of such aisle is higher than the adjacent floor level of any row of seats the edge of such aisle shall be provided with railings not less than 800 mm in height above the floor level of the aisle immediately behind such row, and where the floor level of any row of seats is higher than the floor level of any adjacent cross-aisle the edge of the floor level of such row shall likewise be provided, at the relevant clearance contemplated in subrule TT50.3, with railings in front of all such seats, which shall be not less than 800 mm in height above the floor level of such row.

TT50.7   Any exit door from any auditorium or hall shall be provided with approved panic bolts, and at no time during occupancy of such auditorium or hall by the public shall such door be locked, obscured, obstructed, covered or hidden.

TT50.8   Any floor covering in any auditorium or hall shall be securely fixed and maintained in a safe condition.

TT50.9   An approved standby system for emergency lighting independent of the normal mains supply shall be provided in any theatre complex or any individual auditorium, hall or grandstand where the total number of seats exceeds 240 or the floor area exceeds 240 m2, in order to afford a level of illumination of not less than 2 lux to enable persons to leave all parts of such theatre complex, auditorium, hall or grandstand in the event of failure of the normal mains supply: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in the case of any hall contemplated in the proviso to subrule TT49.1.

TT50.10   The power supply to such emergency lighting shall be safe-guarded against the effects of a fire for at least 30 minutes.

TT51.   Parking garages.—The floor of any occupancy classified J4 shall be of non-combustible material and shall be not less than 10 mm lower than the threshold of any door leading to any adjoining occupancy.

TT52.   Operating theatres and intensive care units

TT52.1   Where within any building there is a suite of rooms used for the purposes of operating theatres, maternity delivery rooms or intensive care units such area shall comply with the following requirements:

            (a)            The walls, floor and ceiling separating such suite from any other suite or from any other part of the building shall have a fire resistance of not less than 120 minutes.

            (b)            There shall be not fewer than two means of exit from such suite.

            (c)            Such suite shall be provided with an approved emergency power supply independent of the normal mains supply and capable of operating for not less than 120 minutes in the event of failure of the mains supply.

            (d)            Any lift used for the transport of patients from such suite shall be provided with an approved emergency power supply independent of the normal mains supply and capable of operating for not less than 120 minutes in the event of failure of the mains supply.

TT53.   Installation of liquid fuel dispensing pumps and tanks

TT53.1   (a)  No liquid fuel dispensing pump or storage tank shall be situated less than 3,5 m from any lateral boundary or street boundary of any site except where there is a boundary wall and such wall has a fire resistance of 120 minutes, is not less than 1,8 m in height and extends not less than 2 m on each side of such pump.

(b)  No part of such tank shall be situated within 500 mm of any building except in the case of any tank contemplated in subrule TT54.3

(c)  No such tank shall be situated within 500 mm of any other tank except where each tank is located in its own concrete lined pit.

TT53.2   No part of any building, other than a canopy or similar projection, to which the occupants of such building do not have access, shall be erected over such dispenser or tank except where—

            (a)            the underside of such part is at least 3,5 m above ground level;

            (b)            such part has a fire resistance of at least 240 minutes and extends at least 2 m in every direction beyond the sides of the dispenser and tank concerned; and

            (c)            the floor below such dispenser, where such dispenser is erected over a basement storey, has a fire resistance of at least 240 minutes and extends at least 2 m in every direction beyond the sides of the dispenser and tank concerned.

TT53.3   Any petrol dispenser shall, where it may be approached by any vehicle, be erected on a raised plinth not less than 150 mm above the surrounding ground level and such plinth shall extend not less than 300 mm beyond the perimeter of the base of such dispenser.

TT53.4   Any such tank and associated equipment shall be constructed and installed in accordance with SABS 0131: Part III, and SABS 089: Part III.

TT53.5   The filler pipe of any fuel tank shall be positioned in a masonry or concrete lined chamber not less than 300 mm deep and such pipe shall be clearly identified to indicate its purpose.

TT53.6   No fuel tank shall have more than one filler pipe, one ventilating pipe and one dipping hole pipe, and such filler and dipping hole pipe shall extend to as near to the bottom of the tank as is practicable.

TT54.   Installation of other tanks

TT54.1   Where on any site liquid petroleum gas is stored in bulk in any vessel which has a water capacity in excess of 500 l the design, erection and protection of such storage facilities shall be in accordance with SABS 087: Part III.

TT54.2   Where any small container is filled with liquid petroleum gas on any site—

            (a)            the location, design and control of the area on such site in which such filling is carried out shall be in accordance with Section 3;

            (b)            the filling equipment shall be in accordance with Section 4;

            (c)            the filling of containers shall be in accordance with Section 7;

            (d)            the storage facilities for such gas shall be in accordance with Section 8; and

            (e)            bulk vehicle discharge of such gas shall be in accordance with Section 9;

of SABS 087: Part VII.

TT54.3   (a)  In the case of any tank installed inside any building and intended to contain diesel fuel such installation shall be in accordance with SABS 0131: Part II.

(b)  Any such tank shall not be installed on any storey above the ground storey of any building.

TT55.   Access to buildings for fire-fighting and rescue purposes

TT55.1   No building shall be erected on any site unless such site is provided with suitable access for the purposes of fire-fighting in and rescue from such building by the Fire Services of the local authority.

TT55.2   Any building shall be provided with suitable access to its interior for rescue purposes by such services and be provided, in terms of rule TT42, with a means of smoke ventilation from each storey.

TT55.3   The requirements contained in subrule TT55.2 shall not apply to any portion of any building which is to be used for the purposes of a strong room, record room, security vault or computer room.

TT55.4   Any escape door shall be clearly identified from the exterior of the building.

TT55.5   The number of any storey shall be indicated inside any emergency route on any access door.

TT56.   Presumed fire resistance of building materials and components

TT56.1   In this rule—

            (a)            “Class 1 Aggregate” means coarse aggregate of foamed slag, blastfurnace slag, pumice, burnt clinker, crushed limestone, crushed dolomite, crushed brick or crushed burnt clay product;

            (b)            “Class 2 Aggregate” means coarse aggregate of gravel or crushed natural stone other than limestone or dolomite; and

            (c)            “Plaster” means a layer of plaster not less than 12 mm thick applied to both faces of a wall.

TT56.2   The building materials and components contemplated in Tables 11 to 15 of this rule shall be deemed to satisfy the performance requirements, under fire conditions, provided that such materials and components comply with the relevant detailed descriptions given in such tables.

TT56.3   Any monolithic unreinforced concrete element or any concrete masonry constructed of solid concrete masonry units in accordance with the requirements contained in SABS 0145 shall be considered to be a solid concrete unit and shall be deemed to have the fire resistance given in Table 12.

TT56.4   Only such building materials, components, and methods of construction for which sufficient test data is available are listed in Tables 11 to 15. The tables will, where necessary, be updated when new evidence on performance becomes available. The fact that a material or method of construction is not mentioned in this rule should not be construed to mean that such material or method cannot be used but it shall mean that the fire resistance shall be ascertained by test or be assessed to be suitable for a particular application.

Table 11—Structural walls: Fire resistance

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

Construction and materials            Minimum thickness (mm), excluding plaster, for fire resistance of    

            240 min       120 min       90 min            60 min            30 min 

Solid construction:                                                                

Bricks of clay,                                                             

Unplastered                  190            110            90            90            90       

Plastered                      150            90            90            90            90       

Note: For concrete masonry construction, refer to Table 4 of SABS 0145

 

Table 12—Non-structural walls and partitions: Fire resistance

 

1          2            3            4            5            6         

Construction and materials            Minimum thickness (mm), excluding plaster, for fire resistance of    

            240 min       120 min       90 min            60 min            30 min 

Solid construction:                                                                

Bricks of clay                                                              

Unplastered                  190            110            90            90            75       

Plastered                      150            90            90            75            75       

Solid concrete units:                                                                

Class 1 aggregates                                                                   

unplastered                   150            90            75            75            75       

Class 2 aggregates                                                                   

unplastered                   215            150            90            75            75       

Note: For concrete masonry construction using hollow masonry units, refer to Table 5 of SABS 0145.           

 

Table 13—Hollow stud construction of steel and timber studs: Fire resistance

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7            8            9            10       

Type of wall            Type of stud      Stud spacing, mm            Size of stud, mm            Cladding thickness*, mm      

                                                9,5            12,7            2 × 9,5            9,5 + 12,7     2 × 12,7     ‡12,7  

                                                Fire resistance, in minutes

Gypsum plasterboard                                                                                                                

Non-structural            Steel            400            50 × 30                    30            60            60            60                   

                                    63,5 × 30                    30            60            60            60            60       

                        600            50 × 30                    30                                    60                   

                                    63,5 × 30                    30                                    60                   

                                    63,5 × 30                    20                                                       

            Timber            600            75 × 38                                30                        30                   

Gypsum plasterboard            Timber            400            114 × 38                                30                        30                   

Structural                      600            114 × 38                                                        30            30       

Fibre-cement boards (unpressed)                                                                                                                 

Non-structural            Steel            400            63,5 × 30        20            30                                                       

                                    63,5 × 30        30                                                                   

                        600            63,5 × 30        20            20                                                       

                                    63,5 × 30        30                                                                   

            Timber            400            75 × 38        30            30                                                       

                        600            75 × 38                    30                        30                               

        Dash indicates that combination has not been tested.

*          Same thickness or combination of thickness—face and reverse side.

          Glass fibre reinforced gypsum boards.            Note:

1)         Screw spacing for each layer of cladding shall not exceed 220 mm.

2)         Joints of such layers shall be staggered.

3)         Boards horizontal.

4)         Cavity filled with mineral wool.   

 

Table 14—Presumed fire resistance of structural steel columns

(Mass of steel not less than 45 kg/m)

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7         

Construction and materials            Minimum thickness (mm) of protection for a fire resistance for a period of—    

            240

min       180

min       120

min       90

min       60

min       30

min      

A.  Solid protection*                                                                              

1.            Reinforced concrete not leaner than 1:2:4 mix with natural aggregates—                                                                           

            a)            concrete not assumed to be structural              50            38            25            25            25            25       

            b)            concrete assumed to be structural                  75            50            50            50            50            50       

2.         Solid bricks of clay or sand-lime                 75            50            50            50            50            50       

3.         Solid blocks of foamed slag or pumice concrete reinforced† in every second horizontal joint              62            62            50            50            50            50       

4.            Sprayed vermiculite-cement or perlite-cement                                       38            32            20            12,5    

B.  Hollow protection‡                                                                              

1.         Solid bricks of clay or sand-lime reinforced in every fourth horizontal joint, unplastered                   100            75            50            50            50            50       

2.         Solid blocks of foamed slag or pumice concrete reinforced† in every second horizontal joint, unplastered            75            62            50            50            50            50       

3.         Metal lath with gypsum or cement-lime plaster of thickness                                              45            30            20            12,5    

4.         a)            Metal lath with vermiculite-gypsum or perlite-gypsum plaster of thickness                      85            65            38            25            18            12,5    

            b)            metal lath spaced 25 mm from flanges with vermiculite-gypsum or perlite-gypsum plaster of thickness                      65            45            25            18            12,5            12,5    

5.            Gypsum plasterboard with 1,6 mm wire binding at 100 mm pitch—                                                                        

            a)            9,5 mm plasterboard with vermiculite-gypsum plaster of thickness                                          16            12,5            10            7         

            b)            19 mm plasterboard with vermiculite-gypsum plaster of thickness                  32§            19            10            10            7            7         

6.         Metal lath with sprayed fibre-cement of thickness                      85            65            38            25            12,5            10       

7.            Vermiculite-cement or perlite-cement slabs of 4:1 mix reinforced with wire mesh adequately fixed to the column and finished with plaster skim. Slabs of thickness                                              25            25            25            25       

*          Solid protection means a casing which is bedded close up to the steel without intervening cavities and with all joints in that casing made full and solid.

            Reinforcement. Where reinforcement is required in this table, that reinforcement shall consist of steel binding wire not less than 2,3 mm in thickness, or a steel mesh weighing not less than 0,48 kg/m2. In concrete protection the spacing of that reinforcement shall not exceed 150 mm in any direction.

          Hollow protection means that there is a void between the protective material and the steel. All hollow protection to columns shall be effectively sealed at each floor level.

§          Light mesh reinforcement required 12,5 mm to 19 mm below surface. 

 

Table 15—Presumed fire resistance of structural steel beams

(Mass of steel not less than 30 kg/m)

 

1          2            3            4            5            6            7         

Construction and materials            Minimum thickness (mm) of protection for a fire resistance for a period of—    

            240

min       180

min       120

min       90

min       60

min       30

min      

A.  Solid protection*                                                                              

1.            Reinforced concrete not leaner than 1:2:4 mix with natural aggregates—                                                                           

            a)            concrete not assumed to be structural              63            50            25            25            25            25       

            b)            concrete assumed to be structural                  75            50            50            50            50            50       

2.            Sprayed fibre-cement (140–240 kg/m3               ‡44            ‡32            19            15            10            10       

3.            Sprayed vermiculite-cement or perlite-cement                                       38            32            20            12,5    

B.  Hollow protection‡                                                                              

1.         Metal lath—                                                                          

            a)            with cement-lime plaster of thickness                                              ‡38            25            19            12,5    

            b)            with gypsum plaster of thickness                                          22            19            16            12,5    

            c)            with vermiculite-gypsum or perlite-gypsum plaster of thickness                      32            19            12,5            12,5            12,5            12,5    

2.         Metal lath with sprayed fibre-cement—(140–240 kg/m3) of thickness                      85            65            38            25            12,5            10       

*          Solid protection means a casing which is bedded close up to the steel without intervening cavities and with all joints in that casing made full and solid.

          Hollow protection means that there is a void between the protective material and the steel. All hollow protection to columns shall be effectively sealed at each floor level.

          Light mesh reinforcement required 12,5 mm to 19 mm below surface.

Note: The use of asbestos fibre-cement in spray applications is prohibited in terms of the Machinery and Occupational Safety Act, 1983 (Act Repealed by Act 85 of 1993.No. 6 of 1983). 

 

TT56.5   Where concrete structural elements and components are constructed in accordance with the relevant requirements contained in SABS 0100, such elements and components may be presumed to have the fire resistance related to such construction given in the tables in that code. The relevant tables are listed in Table 16.

Table 16—Presumed fire resistance of reinforced concrete elements and components

 

1          2         

Element or component            Reference SABS 0100

Reinforced concrete beams            Table 47       

Prestressed concrete beams            Table 48       

Reinforced concrete floors            Table 49 and 51        

Prestressed concrete floors            Table 50 and 51        

Reinforced concrete columns            Table 52 and 53        

Reinforced concrete walls            Table 54       

 

TT57.   Non-combustible building materials

TT57.1   General.—The building materials listed in subrule TT57.2 are deemed to satisfy the requirements for non-combustibility as prescribed in SABS 0177: Part V singly or in combination with each other. Any addition of organic or other combustible material may render the listed material combustible in terms of SABS 0177: Part V and materials not listed are presumed to be combustible except where proved otherwise when tested in accordance with such code of practice.

TT57.2   Non-combustible building materials

Aluminium (extrusions or castings)

Fibre-cement

Fibre-cement products with less than 7,5% combustible additives

Brass

Bricks (burnt clay, lime/sand, cement/sand)

Cement (portland, blastfurnace, etc)

Clay (burnt or unburnt)

Concrete

Furnace slag

Glass (solid)

Glass fibres (spun, woven or wool, with less than 5% resin content)

Gypsum (with less than 7,5% paper or other combustibles)

Lime

Metals (other than the alkaline metals)

Mineral wool (with less than 5% resin content)

Mortar (lime, cement, gypsum)

Perlite

Porcelain

Pumice

Sand

Steel (cast or rolled)

Stone, natural

Vermiculite

Note

1)         The metals listed may only be considered to be non-combustible when in their solid form and not when in the form of a powder, shavings, etc.

2)         The percentages given are by mass.

TT57.3   Surface fire index of materials.—Samples of finishing materials to be used on vertical and overhead horizontal surfaces shall be tested in accordance with subsections 5.1 to 5.4 of SABS 0177: Part III and the values obtained from such test shall be used to calculate the class to the limiting values given in Table 17, and for a given class of material the requirements given in columns 2, 3, 4 and 5 of such table shall be individually satisfied.

Table 17—Classification of finishing materials

 

1          2            3            4            5         

            Maximum values        

Class    Spread of flame index, 1f         Heat contributed index, 1h            Smoke emitted index, 1s         Surface fire index, F     

1          0,1            0,1            0,2            0,1      

2          0,7            0,8            1,0            0,6      

3          1,5            1,7            2,0            1,2      

4          3,5            3,8            4,0            2,9      

5          5,5            5,8            6,0            4,5      

 

TT57.4   Fire index of floor coverings.—Samples of covering shall be tested in accordance with subsections 6.1 to 6.4 of SABS 0177: Part IV and the values obtained from such test shall be used to calculate the class to the limiting values given in Table 18, and for a given class of floor covering the requirements given in columns 2, 3, 4 and 5 of such table shall be individually satisfied.

Table 18—Classification of floor coverings

 

1          2            3            4            5         

            Maximum values        

Class    Spread of flame index, 1f         Heat contributed index, 1h            Smoke emitted index, 1s         Surface fire index, F     

1          0,2            0,2            0,15            0,1      

2          1,0            0,9            0,9            0,7      

3          2,1            2,1            2,1            1,7      

4          3,9            3,9            3,9            3,3      

5          5,0            5,0            5,0            4,5      

 

PART U

REFUSE DISPOSAL

There are no deemed-to-satisfy rules in this section.

PART V

SPACE HEATING

VV1.   General.—The regulation contained in Part V of the National Building Regulations shall be deemed to be satisfied where any flue pipe, chimney, hearth or fireplace complies with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

VV2.   Flue pipes

VV2.1   No flue pipe shall be designed and installed in such a manner that it will cause a fire hazard to any adjacent material.

VV2.2   No flue pipe shall be connected to any shaft or duct which forms part of a ventilation system.

VV2.3   No flue pipe shall be installed in any shaft or duct in which any services which may be adversely affected by heat are to be situated.

VV3.   Chimneys

VV3.1   Any chimney which is within or is attached to a building shall comply with the following requirements:

            (a)            It shall be designed and erected in non-combustible materials and in such a manner that it will not cause a fire hazard to any adjacent material.

            (b)            It shall not be installed in any shaft or duct in which any services which may be adversely affected by heat are to be situated.

            (c)            No combustible material such as a timber floor joist, trimmer or roof truss shall be built within 200 mm of the inside of such chimney.

VV3.2   (a)  Where in any dwelling house or dwelling unit the walls of any chimney are erected of masonry units such walls shall be of solid masonry, and where such walls are less than 190 mm thick such chimney shall be lined in compliance with subrule VV3.3: Provided that any such walls shall not be reduced to less than 90 mm in thickness.

(b)  Without prejudice to the requirements contained in paragraph (a) the thickness of any chimney wall in any building covered by a combustible roof shall be not less than 190 mm.

VV3.3   Where any chimney is provided with a flue lining such lining shall be made of material which will withstand any action of the flue gases and resist, without cracking or softening, the temperatures to which it may be subjected and it shall extend throughout the full height of such chimney.

VV3.4   Where any chimney has either a laterally unsupported height greater than 4 m or a laterally unsupported height greater than six times its minimum lateral dimension it shall be designed in accordance with the requirements for the design of structural systems contained in Part B of the National Building Regulations.

VV3.5   The height of any chimney outlet shall be not less than—

            (a)            1 m above the highest point of contact between such chimney and the roof: Provided that where a roof has an angle of slope on both sides of a ridge of not less than 10° from the horizontal and the centre line of the flue of the chimney is not more than 600 mm from the ridge, the height of such chimney outlet shall not be less than 600 mm above such ridge;

            (b)            1 m above the highest point of any window or roof light capable of being opened or any ventilation inlet situated in any roof or external wall where the horizontal distance from the nearest point of such window, roof light or opening to a vertical line through the centre of such chimney outlet is less than 2,3 m;

            (c)            1 m above the eaves level in the case of any chimney which does not pass through the roof of a building but is within 1,5 m of the nearest wall of such building: Provided that at a gable end of such building such chimney shall extend not less than 600 mm above the highest point of such gable end.

VV4.   Hearths and fireplaces for solid fuel appliances

VV4.1   Every fireplace used for the burning of solid fuel shall have a hearth made of non-combustible material of adequate thickness.

VV4.2   Such hearth shall extend not less than 500 mm in front of the grate or fire basket and not less than 300 mm beyond each side of such grate or fire basket.

VV4.3   No timber floor joist or trimmer or any other combustible material shall be built into any hearth.

PART W

FIRE INSTALLATION

WW1.   General.—The requirements of regulation W3 shall be deemed to be satisfied where any fire installation is designed and constructed in accordance with deemed-to-satisfy rules contained in the following provisions of this Part.

WW2.   Communication pipe.—Any fire installation shall be connected to a communication pipe provided by the local authority and located at a position and depth to be determined by such local authority.

WW3.   Water meter.—Where so required by the local authority provision shall be made in any fire installation for the supply and installation by the local authority of a water meter.

WW4.   Isolating valves.—An isolating valve shall be fitted in any fire installation at a position not more than 1,5 m inside the boundary of the site.

WW5.   Fire installations

WW5.1   Any fire installation shall be so constructed as to provide—

            (a)            a quantity of water sufficient for the effective operation of that number of hose reels, hydrants and sprinkler heads which may be operated or come into operation simultaneously in any division;

            (b)            a flow pressure, at any hose reel or hydrant, of not less than 300 kPa and a flow rate of not less than—

            (i)            0,5l/s per hose reel; and

            (ii)            20l/s per hydrant;

            (c)            a flow pressure and flow rate at the control valve of any sprinkler system appropriate to the hazard rating of such system.

WW5.2   In any fire installation—

            (a)            the nominal diameter of—

            (i)            any communication pipe serving such installation shall be not less than 75 mm;

            (ii)            any pipe supplying water to any fire hydrant shall be not less than 75 mm: Provided that where the length of such pipe is more than 50 m the nominal diameter of such pipe and of the communication pipe to which the installation is connected shall be not less than 100 mm;

            (iii)            any service pipe supplying water to any hose reel on any one storey of a building shall be not less than—

            (aa)            25 mm, if it serves 1 or 2 hose reels;

            (bb)            32 mm, if its serves 3 hose reels;

            (cc)            40 mm, if it serves 4 or 5 hose reels; and

            (dd)            50 mm, if it serves more than 5 hose reels;

            (b)            any pipe which serves any hydrant and hose reel installation or an automatic sprinkler installation, shall be provided with a twin pumping connection;

            (c)            any pipe serving only hose reels shall be provided with a single pumping connection;

            (d)            any pipe fitted with one or more fire-pump connections shall be fitted with a pressure gauge reading up to 2 500 kPa and a reflux valve so located as to shut off automatically the direct supply of water from the local authority system to such installation whenever and for so long as any such fire pump connection is in use.

WW5.3   No reflux valve in any fire installation shall be so positioned as to prevent or hinder the flow of water from any fire-pump connection to any hose reel or hydrant connected to such installation.

WW5.4   Any fire installation shall be connected—

            (a)            directly to the communication pipe where the local authority’s water supply is capable of providing the pressure and rate of flow required for hose reels contemplated in subrule WW5.1; or

            (b)            to a storage tank of adequate capacity where so required by the local authority or where the local authority’s water supply is not capable of providing such pressure and rate of flow: Provided that where any fire installation is connected to such storage tank a pump shall be fitted between such tank and any hose reel and provided further that such pump shall be capable of supplying water at the topmost hose reel at a pressure of 300 kPa and a rate of 0,5l/s and shall function automatically with the opening of any hose reel nozzle.

WW5.5   Such storage tank shall be connected, supplied with water and controlled in accordance with the following requirements—

            (a)            The point of connection between such storage tank and any supply pipe shall be above the level of the outlet of the topmost hose reel.

            (b)            Such storage tank shall be supplied with water in a manner adequate to fill and to maintain it automatically to its required capacity except when any hose reel connected to it is in use, and where the supply of water is controlled by a ball valve, such valve shall have a diameter of not less than 20 mm and shall be fitted with a manually operated shut-off valve.

            (c)            A reflux valve shall be provided on any pipe at a position between the topmost hose reel and the point of connection of such pipe to such storage tank and so arranged as to cut off the flow of water from the tank whenever and for so long as any associated fire-pump connection is in use.

            (d)            A manually operated shut-off valve shall be provided on any pipe at a position between such fire-pump connection and any hose reel supplied by such fire-pump connection and so arranged that the flow of water direct to such hose reel may be cut off when the fire-pump connection is not in use.

WW5.6   Where in any fire installation any hydrant valve or hose reel is installed at a height greater than that at which the local authority is capable of maintaining an adequate water supply from its water supply system, or through the equipment of its fire department, such installation shall—

            (a)            be capable of maintaining a flow rate of not less than 20l/s at a gauge pressure of not less than 300 kPa at any hydrant valve connected to such fire installation; and

            (b)            be provided with—

            (i)            a tank located at or below ground level which shall—

            (aa)            have a capacity of not less than 25 kl;

            (bb)            be supplied by a service pipe which has a diameter of not less than 20 mm and is connected to a communication pipe and provided with a pressure gauge reading up to 2 500 kPa, controlled at its outlet by a high pressure automatic shut-off valve;

            (cc)            be connected to a supplementary service pipe which has a diameter of not less than 100 mm, a twin fire-pump connection fitted at its inlet and an outlet so positioned as to discharge into the top of the tank;

            (dd)            be provided with a gauge to indicate the level of water contained in the tank;

            (ii)            not less than two interconnected pump units individually capable of producing and maintaining the pressure and the flow rate contemplated in subrule WW5.1 and each of which shall—

            (aa)            be fitted with either a manual starting mechanism or an automatic starting mechanism that will start such pump units automatically with any reduction of the static pressure in the fire installation: Provided that such automatic starting mechanism shall be fitted with a manual override control;

            (bb)            be driven by an electric motor connected to the normal electric power supply and also to a diesel-electric unit which shall start automatically and immediately in the event of failure of the normal electric power supply;

            (cc)            be connected to a delivery pipe having a diameter of not less than 100 mm, or not less than 150 mm in the case of any delivery pipe which exceeds a height of 50 m above the pump;

            (iii)            devices limiting the gauge pressure at any hydrant valve to 700 kPa under full flow conditions.

WW5.7   Any fire installation equipped with automatic pump starting mechanisms shall be fitted with an alarm system designed to emit a continuous audible warning whenever and for so long as any pump installed in the installation is set in motion.

WW5.8   Any fire installation equipped with manual pump starting mechanisms shall be kept constantly charged with water and shall at all times be under the supervision and control of a person who is fully conversant with all the technical details of the installation and its warning devices.

WW5.9   Any alarm system shall be provided with an alarm cancel button.

WW5.10   Any pump unit and its starting and driving mechanisms shall be installed in a ventilated compartment constructed to have a fire resistance rating of not less than 120 minutes and where any such compartment is located at or below ground level, the entrance or other means of access thereto shall abut on a street, public place or an open area on the site: Provided that where any such compartment is located in any basement, the means of access thereto shall be enclosed by walls having a fire resistance rating of not less than 120 minutes and shall not be used as a means of access to any other part of the building.

WW5.11   In any building in which pumps form part of the required fire installation, an intercommunication telephone system shall be provided for the use of the fire department of the local authority and such telephone system shall include the following:

            (a)            Wall-hung hand-sets or standard type connections for portable handsets that permit intercommunication between the main entrance to the building and all storeys and all pump and tank rooms.

            (b)            Where portable hand-sets are installed, not less than three such handsets shall be kept in a cabinet at the main entrance to the building and each connecting point for a portable hand-set shall be housed in a box with a transparent and easily breakable glass panel.

            (c)            Any telephone in a pump room shall be fitted with loudspeaker equipment of sufficient strength and clarity to transmit a voice distinctly over a distance of not less than 5 m from the loudspeaker when the pumps are in operation.

GNR.2378 of 12 October 1990:  Regulations in terms of section 17 (1) of the Act

NOTE.—These regulations were published under Government Notice R2378 in Government Gazette 12780 of 12 October 1990 and were amended and brought into operation with effect from 8 March 1991 by Government Notice R432 in Government Gazette 13054 of 8 March 1991.

GN R2738/1990 was published in GG 12780 of 12 October 1990 and amended by:

 

GN R432                     8/3/91            wef 8/3/91

GN R919            GG20314        30/7/99           

 

ARRANGEMENT OF REGULATIONS

PART AZ

COMING INTO OPERATION, DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS

 

AZ1     Coming into Operation 

AZ2            Definitions      

AZ3            Standards        

 

PART A

ADMINISTRATION

 

A1            Application      

A2       Plans and Particulars to be Furnished

A3            Preliminary Plans and Enquiries         

A4       Local Authority May Require Additional Documents and Information      

A5            Application Forms and Materials, Scales and Sizes of Plans  

A6       Site Plans   

A7       Layout Drawing          

A8            Plumbing Installation Drawings and Particulars       

A9       Fire Protection Plan

A10            Symbols on Fire Protection Plans   

A11     Pointing Out of Boundary Beacons          

A12     Street Levels 

A13     Building Materials and Tests   

A14            Construction    

A15            Installations Maintenance and Operation 

A16            Qualifications of a Building Control Officer

A17            Certificate of Identity of a Building Control Officer

A18     Control of Plumbers and Plumbing Work  

A19            Appointment of Persons Responsible for Design 

A20            Classification and Designation of Occupancies    

A21            Population       

A22     Notice of Intention to Commence Erection or Demolition of a Building and Notices of Inspection        

A23            Temporary Buildings    

A24            Standardization of Interpretation   

A25     General Enforcement    

 

PART B

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

 

B1        Design Requirement    

 

PART C

DIMENSIONS

 

C1       Rooms and Buildings   

 

PART D

PUBLIC SAFETY

 

D1       Change in Level           

D2            Pedestrian Entrances to Parking Areas in Buildings      

D3       Ramps 

D4            Swimming Pools and Swimming Baths   

D5            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART E

DEMOLITION WORK

 

E1            Demolition of Any Building           

E2            Safeguarding of Basements       

E3            Prohibition of Dangerous Methods          

E4        General Penalty

 

PART F

SITE OPERATIONS

 

F1            Protection of the Public

F2            Damage to Local Authority’s Property          

F3            Unstable Soil Conditions       

F4            Preparation of Site       

F5        Soil Poisoning         

F6        Control of Dust and Noise  

F7        Cutting Into, Laying Open and Demolishing Certain Work  

F8        Waste Material on Site           

F9            Cleaning of Site           

F10            Builder’s Sheds           

F11            Sanitary Facilities       

 

PART G

EXCAVATIONS

 

G1       General Stability Requirement    

G2            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART H

FOUNDATIONS

 

H1       General Requirement    

 

PART J

FLOORS

 

J1         General Requirement    

 

Part K

WALLS

 

K1            Structural Strength and Stability           

K2       Water Penetration      

K3       Roof Fixing  

K4            Behaviour in Fire        

K5            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART L

ROOFS

 

L1        General Requirement    

L2        Fire Resistance and Combustibility  

L3            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART M

STAIRWAYS

 

M1       General Requirement    

M2       Fire Requirement    

M3            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART N

GLAZING

 

N1       Type and Fixing of Glazing

 

PART O

LIGHTING AND VENTILATION

 

O1       Lighting and Ventilation Requirements   

O2       Special Provision of Natural Lighting           

O3            Approval of Artificial Ventilation Systems           

O4       Design of Artificial Ventilation Systems           

O5            Artificial Ventilation Plant    

O6       Testing of Artificial Ventilation Systems           

O7       Fire Requirements   

 

PART P

DRAINAGE

 

P1            Compulsory Drainage of Buildings      

P2        Design of Drainage Installations      

P3        Control of Objectionable Discharge        

P4            Industrial Effluent        

P5            Disconnections           

P6            Unauthorized Drainage Work  

P7            Inspection and Testing of Drainage Installations      

 

PART Q

NON-WATER-BORNE MEANS OF SANITARY DISPOSAL

 

Q1       Means of Disposal      

Q2            Permission       

Q3            Construction, Siting and Access

 

PART R

STORMWATER DISPOSAL

 

R1            Stormwater Disposal Requirement    

R2        Saving 

 

PART S

FACILITIES FOR DISABLED PERSONS

 

S1            Application      

S2            Facilities to be Provided         

S3            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART T

FIRE PROTECTION

 

T1        General Requirement    

T2            Offences          

 

PART U

REFUSE DISPOSAL

 

U1            Provision of Storage Areas  

U2       Access to Storage Areas  

U3       Refuse Chutes 

 

PART V

SPACE HEATING

 

V1       Design, Construction and Installation 

 

PART W

FIRE INSTALLATION

 

W1      Fire Installations      

W2      Supply of Water          

W3      Design of Fire Installations      

W4            Deemed-to-Satisfy Requirements   

 

PART X

REPEAL OF REGULATIONS

 

                       

 

PART AZ

COMING INTO OPERATION, DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS

AZ1.   Coming into Operation.—These regulations shall in terms of section 17 (3) of the Act come into operation on 8 March 1991.

AZ2.   Definitions.—In these regulations any word or expression to which a meaning has been assigned in the Act, shall bear that meaning and, unless the context indicates otherwise—

“acceptable”, “adequate”, “satisfactory” or “suitable” means acceptable, adequate, satisfactory or suitable—

            (a)            in the opinion of any local authority; or

            (b)            in relation to any document issued by the council, in the opinion of the council;

“air duct” means any pipe, tube, conduit or enclosed space used or to be used in any building for the transmission of air in an artificial ventilation system;

“applicant” means any person who makes an application;

“application” means an application contemplated in section 4 of the Act;

“approval” means—

            (a)            approval by any local authority, including approval contemplated in section 7 (7) (b) of the Act; or

            (b)            approval by the review board on appeal to the review board in terms of the Act;

“approved” means—

            (a)            approved by any local authority; or

            (b)            approved by the review board on appeal to the review board in terms of the Act;

“artificial ventilation system” means a system in which air is caused to circulate through a room by means of a mechanical apparatus which forces air into or extracts air from such room;

“branch discharge pipe” means a horizontal discharge pipe conveying the discharge from one or more sanitary fixtures to a discharge stack;

“building line”, in relation to a site, means a line prescribed in any town planning scheme or any other law designating the boundaries of the area of the site outside of which the erection above ground of any building is prohibited;

“capacity” of any storage tank means the volume of such tank between the operating level of the water contained in such tank and the invert of the outlet from the tank;

“carport” means a building intended to provide shelter for a motor vehicle, caravan or boat and having a roof but having walls on not more than two sides;

“chemical closet” means a closet with a fixed pan, the excreta from which pass into a tank where they are acted upon by chemicals which sterilize and break them down;

“chimney” means that part of a building which forms part of a flue, but does not include a flue pipe;

“class”, in relation to a fire-door or fire-shutter, means the class thereof as defined in SABS 1253;

“cleaning eye” means any access opening to the interior of a discharge pipe or trap provided for the purposes of internal cleaning, and which remains permanently accessible after completion of the drainage installation;

“combustible” means the opposite of non-combustible;

“common drain” means that portion of a drain which conveys sewage other than or in addition to that sewage which emanates from the site through which such drain runs;

“communication pipe” means any pipe in a water supply system to which any water installation is connected;

“competent person” means a person who is qualified by virtue of his experience and training;

“connecting sewer” means a pipe vested in the local authority which connects a drain to a sewer;

“conservancy tank” means a covered tank used for the reception and temporary retention of sewage and which requires emptying at intervals;

“discharge pipe” means a pipe which conveys the discharge from a sanitary fixture to a drain, and includes a soil pipe, a waste pipe, a discharge stack, a branch discharge pipe or a fixture discharge pipe;

“discharge stack” means any vertical discharge pipe which conveys the discharge from two or more sanitary fixtures and which is connected directly to a drain;

“drain” means that part of any drainage installation outside a building and which is below ground level, but shall not include the following:

            (a)            Any discharge pipe;

            (b)            that portion of a discharge stack which is below ground level;

            (c)            the bend at the foot of a discharge stack;

“drainage installation” means any installation vested in the owner of a site and which is situated on such site and is intended for the reception, conveyance, storage or treatment of sewage, and may include sanitary fixtures, traps, discharge pipes, drains, ventilating pipes, septic tanks, conservancy tanks, sewage treatment works, or mechanical appliances associated therewith;

“dwelling house” means a single dwelling unit and any garage and other domestic outbuildings thereto, situated on its own site;

“dwelling unit” means a unit containing one or more habitable rooms and provided with adequate sanitary and cooking facilities;

“emergency route” means that part of an escape route which provides fire protection to the occupants of any building and which leads to an escape door;

“escape door” means that door in an escape route which, at ground level, leads directly to a street or public place or to any approved open space which leads to a street or public place;

“escape route” means the entire path of travel from the furthest point in any room in a building to the nearest escape door and may include an emergency route;

“exit door” means any door that is a component of an escape route from any room;

“fire installation” means any water installation which conveys water solely for the purpose of fire-fighting;

[Definition of “fire installation” inserted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“fire resistance” means the shortest period for which a building element or component will comply with the requirements for stability, integrity and insulation when tested in accordance with SABS 0177: Part II;

“fixture discharge pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys the discharge from a single sanitary fixture;

“flammable” means having a closed cup flash point lower than 90°C;

“floor area”, in relation to a building or a storey thereof, means the total area enclosed within its external walls, exclusive of the area occupied by any lift shaft;

“flue” means a passage which conveys the discharge of a heat generating appliance to the external air;

“flue pipe” means a pipe forming a flue but does not include a pipe built as a lining into a chimney;

“foundation” means that part of a building which is in direct contact with and is intended to transmit loads to the ground;

“foundation wall” means that portion of a wall between the foundation and the lowest floor above such foundation;

“french drain” means a trench filled with suitable material which is used for the disposal of liquid effluent from a septic tank or waste water;

“garage” means an enclosed area which is used or intended to be used for the parking, storing, servicing or repairing of motor vehicles;

“gully” means a pipe fitting incorporating a trap into which waste water is discharged;

“habitable room” means a room used or designed, erected, adapted or intended to be used by persons for sleeping in, living in, the preparation or consumption of food or drink, the transaction of business, the rendering of professional services, the manufacture, processing or sale of goods, the performance of work, the gathering together of persons or for recreational purposes;

“incremental house” means any dwelling house that, for reasons of affordability, is to be constructed in stages in such a manner that in its intermediate stages the house can be occupied by its owner for the specified limited period of time necessary to complete it and that is intended, in its finally approved form, to have a total plan area of not more than 802;

“industrial effluent” means any liquid whether or not containing matter in solution or suspension which is given off in the course of or as a result of any industrial, trade, manufacturing, mining or chemical process or any laboratory, research or agricultural activity, and includes any liquid other than soil water or stormwater;

“inspection chamber” means a chamber not deeper than 750 mm and of such dimension that access may be obtained to a drain without requiring a person to enter into such chamber;

“inspection eye” means any access opening to the interior of any pipe or pipe fitting in a drainage installation provided solely for the purpose of inspection and testing, and to which permanent access after completion of the drainage installation need not be provided;

“load” means any force to which a building is or may be subjected, and includes dead, imposed, wind and seismic loads and forces caused by dimensional changes of materials;

“manhole” means a chamber of a depth greater than 750 mm and of such dimensions that allows entry of a person into such chamber for the purpose of providing access to a drain;

“minor building work” as contemplated in section 13 of the Act means—

            (a)            the erection of any—

            (i)            poultry house not exceeding 10 m2 in area;

            (ii)            aviary not exceeding 20 m2 in area;

            (iii)            solid fuel store not exceeding 10 m2 in area and 2 m in height;

            (iv)            tool shed not exceeding 10 m2 in area;

            (v)            child’s playhouse not exceeding 5 m2 in area;

            (vi)            cycle shed not exceeding 5 m2 in area;

            (vii)            greenhouse not exceeding 15 m2 in area;

            (viii)            open-sided car, caravan or boat shelter or a carport where such shelter or carport does not exceed 40 m2 in area;

            (ix)            any free-standing wall constructed of masonry, concrete or timber or any wire fence where such wall or fence does not exceed 1,8 m in height;

            (x)            any pergola;

            (xi)            private swimming-pool;

            (xii)            change room, not exceeding 10 m2 in area, at a private swimming-pool;

            (b)            the replacement of a roof or part thereof with the same or similar material;

            (c)            the conversion of a door into a window or a window into a door without increasing the width of the opening;

            (d)            the making of an opening in a wall which does not affect the structural safety of the building concerned;

            (e)            the partitioning or the enlarging of any room by the erection or demolition of an internal wall if such erection or demolition does not affect the structural safety of the building concerned;

            ( f )            the erection of any solar water heater not exceeding 6 m2 in area on any roof or 12 m2 when erected other than on any roof; and

            (g)            the erection of any other building where the nature of the erection is such that in the opinion of the building control officer it is not necessary for the applicant to submit, with his application, plans prepared in full conformity with these regulations;

“natural ventilation” means the movement of air through a building due to natural causes;

“non-cumbustible” means classified as non-combustible when tested in accordance with code of practice SABS 0177: Part V;

“occupancy” means the particular use or the type of use to which a building or portion thereof is normally put or intended to be put;

“pail closet” means a closet with a removable pail which is systematically emptied or replaced;

“pipe” . . . . . .

[Definition of “pipe” deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“pit latrine” means a closet placed over or adjacent to an excavation which is of adequate depth;

“pollution” . . . . . .

[Definition of “pollution” deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“population” means the population determined in accordance with regulation A21;

“public place” means any square, park, recreation ground or open space which—

            (a)            is vested in the local authority; or

            (b)            the public has the right to use; or

            (c)            is shown on a general plan of a township filed in a deeds registry or a Surveyor-General’s office and has been provided for or reserved for the use of the public or the owners of erven in such township;

“rational design” means any design involving a process of reasoning and calculation and may include any such design based on the use of a code of practice or other relevant technical document;

“rodding eye” means an access opening in a drainage installation provided for the purposes of gaining full-bore access to the interior of a drain for internal cleaning, and which remains permanently accessible after completion of the installation, but does not include an inspection chamber or manhole;

“roof assembly” means a building cover and its supporting structure including any ceiling attached to such structure;

“sanitary fixture” means a receptacle to which water is permanently supplied, and from which waste water or soil water is discharged;

“septic tank” means a tank designed to receive sewage and to retain it for such a time and in such a manner as to secure adequate decomposition;

“sewage” means waste water, soil water, industrial effluent and other liquid waste, either separately or in combination, but does not include stormwater;

“sewer” means a pipe or conduit which is the property of or is vested in the local authority and which is used or intended to be used for the conveyance of sewage;

“site” means any erf, lot, plot, stand or other piece of land on which a building has been, is being or is to be erected;

“soil fixture” means a sanitary fixture which receives and discharges soil water;

“soil pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys soil water;

“soil water” means liquid containing excreta;

“sprinkler system” means an approved system of piping and sprinkler heads connected to a water supply which when actuated by the effect of fire automatically releases water;

“stairway” means any part of a building which provides a route of travel between different levels in such building and is formed by a single flight or by a combination of two or more flights and one or more intervening landings;

“storage tank” means any tank, other than any tank used for storage of hot water or any cistern serving a WC pan or a urinal, which forms part of a water installation and is used for the storage of water;

“storey” means that part of a building which is situated between the top of any floor and the top of the floor next above it, or if there is no floor above it that portion between such floor and the ceiling above it (any mezzanine floor, open work floor, catwalk or gallery being taken to be part of the storey in which it is situated), and in relation to a building—

            (a)            the ground storey shall be taken as the storey in which there is situated an entrance to the building from the level of the adjoining ground or, if there is more than one such storey the lower or lowest of these;

            (b)            a basement shall be taken to be any part of the building which is below the level of the ground storey;

            (c)            an upper storey shall be taken to be any storey of the building which is above the level of the ground storey; and

            (d)            the height expressed in storeys shall be taken to be that number of storeys which includes all storeys other than a basement;

[Definition of “storey” amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

“stormwater” means water resulting from natural precipitation or accumulation and includes rainwater, surface water, subsoil water or spring water;

“stormwater drain” means a pipe, conduit or surface channel situated on a site, which is used to convey stormwater to a suitable point of discharge;

“stormwater sewer” means a pipe, conduit or channel, owned by or vested in the local authority, which is used for the conveyance of stormwater;

“street” means any street, road, thoroughfare, lane, footpath, sidewalk, subway or bridge which—

            (a)            is vested in the local authority; or

            (b)            the public has the right to use; or

            (c)            is shown on a general plan of a township filed in a deeds registry or a Surveyor-General’s office and has been provided or reserved for use by the public or the owners of erven in such township;

“street boundary”, in relation to a site, means the boundary of such site which abuts any street;

“structural” means relating to or forming part of any structural system;

“structural system” . . . . . .

[Definition of “structural system” deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“structural wall” means a wall forming part of any structural system;

“temporary building” means any building that is so declared by the owner and that is being used or is to be used for a specified purpose for a specified limited period of time, but does not include a builder’s shed;

“terminal water fitting” . . . . . .

[Definition of “terminal water fitting” deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“the Act” means the National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 (Act 103 of 1977);

“trained plumber” means any person who in the trade of plumbing has, in terms of the Manpower Training Act, 1981 (Act 56 of 1981), passed a qualifying trade test or has been issued with a certificate of proficiency;

“trap” means a pipe fitting or a part of a sanitary fixture which is designed to retain a water seal;

“vent” . . . . . .

[Definition of “vent” deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

“ventilating pipe” means a pipe, which leads to the open air at its highest point and which provides ventilation throughout a drainage installation for the purpose of preventing the destruction of water seals, but does not include a discharge pipe;

“waste pipe” means a discharge pipe which conveys waste water only;

“waste water” means used water not contaminated by soil water or industrial effluent and shall not include stormwater;

“water fitting” means any component, other than a pipe, of any water installation, through which water passes or in which it is stored;

“water installation” means an installation used or intended to be used for the conveyance or storage of water in any building or on any site on which such building is situated and includes any pipe or any water fitting other than any water meter vested in the local authority;

“water seal” means the water in a trap which acts as a barrier against the flow of any foul air or gas;

“water supply system” means any system of structures, aqueducts, pipes, valves, pumps, meters or other appurtenances relating thereto which are vested in the local authority and are used or intended to be used by it in connection with the supply of water;

“wind load” means the force exerted by the action of wind.

AZ3.   Standards.—Where in these regulations reference is made to a SABS number, such reference shall relate to a document bearing the number and title given in the following table:

 

1          2            3            4         

SABS

No       Title            Government

Notice Number            Date    

1125    Room air conditioners             463            1982-07-09  

1253    Fire door assemblies                    463            1982-07-09  

05            Preservative treatment of timber                       463            1982-07-09  

0105    The classification, use and routine maintenance of fire-fighting appliances                    463            1982-07-09  

0124            Application of certain soil insecticides for the protection of buildings            463            1982–07–09 

0177    Fire testing of materials, components, and elements used in buildings:            463            1982–07–09 

            Part II              463            1982–07–09 

            Part III             463            1982–07–09 

                        936            1985–05–16 

            Part IV             463            1982–07–09 

            Part V              463            1982–07–09 

0400    The application of the National Building Regulations            2484            1990–10–26 

 

[Regulation AZ3 amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

PART A

ADMINISTRATION

A1.   Application.—(1)  The designing, planning and the supervision of the erection of any building or structure or the performance of any function in connection therewith in terms of these regulations is subject to the provisions of any law in terms of which the person undertaking such work or performing such function is required to be registered as an architect in terms of the Architects’ Act, 1970 (Act 35 of 1970), or to have a specified qualification, certificate, status or other attribute or to have had experience or training of a specified nature or for a specified period.

(2)  The plans and particulars in respect of any building to be erected by or on behalf of the State shall be accompanied by a certificate, signed by the head of the State Department concerned or an officer designated by him, setting out in full details as to the respect in which such erection will not comply with the requirements of these regulations.

(3)  No person shall erect any building which is to be supported by an existing building or extend an existing building unless a professional engineer or other approved competent person has judged the existing building to be capable of carrying any additional load arising from such erection or extension and has, in writing, so informed the local authority.

(4)  No plans, particulars or approval shall be required for any repair which has become necessary as a result of ordinary wear and tear or which is undertaken in the normal course of maintenance or upkeep of any building: Provided that where such repair will affect the structural loading or is a repair of any part of the structural system the local authority may require drawings or specifications to be submitted.

(5)  An application shall be made to the building control officer for authorization to erect any building defined as minor building work or to carry out any work falling within the ambit of such definition, and any such erection or work shall not be commenced before such authorization has been granted: Provided that such application and such authorization shall not be required for minor building work for which, in terms of the proviso to regulation A2 (1), no plans are required.

(6)  Minor building work shall comply with any national building regulations specified as a condition of the authorization granted by the building control officer.

(7)  (a)  Where in any application the owner of any building has declared such building to be a temporary building, the local authority shall, before granting provisional authorization in terms of regulation A23, assess such building in relation to—

            (i)            the intended use and life of the building;

            (ii)            the area in which it is to be erected; and

            (iii)            the availability of suitable materials from which it may be constructed.

(b)  Any stall or other similar building to be erected as part of an exhibition shall be deemed to be a temporary building: Provided that where such stall is to be erected inside any exhibition hall the owner of such hall shall not be required to submit to the local authority any details of such stall: Provided further that such owner shall submit to the local authority a layout plan of all stalls within such hall, showing the location of each individual stall, and all aisles, passageways, escape routes and fire-fighting equipment.

[Paragraph (b) amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

(c)  Any incremental house shall in the application of these regulations in any intermediate stage of erection be deemed to be a temporary building.

(d)  Where any building contemplated in paragraph (a) is intended to be used for experimental, demonstration, testing or assessment purposes, the local authority—

            (i)            shall grant authorization for a period of time sufficient for the erection of such building and for the performance of any experiment, or for the demonstration, testing or assessment of such building; and

            (ii)            shall grant authorization for the erection of such building where testing or assessment of the completed building is the only way to ascertain whether such building complies with the requirements of these regulations.

(8)  Where an application is made to make an alteration or addition to any building, approval for the erection of which was granted before the date of commencement of the Act—

            (a)            such alteration shall comply with the requirements of the Act, but consequent changes to any other part of the building which would be necessary in order to make such other part comply with the requirements of the Act shall not be required unless in the opinion of the local authority such consequent changes are necessary to ensure the health or safety of persons using the building in the altered form;

            (b)            such addition shall comply with the requirements of the Act, but no changes to the original building shall be required unless the addition—

            (i)            will affect the structural strength or stability of the original building;

            (ii)            will render any existing escape route from the original building less effective; or

            (iii)            will affect the health of persons using the original building.

(9)  Where in terms of these regulations an obligation is imposed or may be imposed on the owner of any building or land to do or refrain from doing any particular act or thing, and—

            (a)            such owner and some other person have lawfully agreed, in writing, that such other person shall accept such obligation on behalf of such owner; and

            (b)            such owner has, where required by the local authority, furnished the local authority with written proof of the fact contemplated in paragraph (a) and with the name and address of such other person,

any reference in any such regulation to such owner shall be construed as a reference to such other person: Provided that such owner shall not be relieved of such obligation where such other person does not adhere to the agreement contemplated in paragraph (a).

A2.   Plans and Particulars to be Furnished.—(1)  Any person intending to erect any building, shall submit to the local authority the following plans and particulars, together with the application:

            (a)            A site plan;

            (b)            layout drawings;

            (c)            a fire installation drawing;

            (d)            drainage installation drawing;

            (e)            particulars of any existing building which is to be demolished and details of the method of demolition to be used;

            ( f )            such plans and particulars as may be required by the local authority in respect of—

            (i)            general structural arrangements, subject to any requirement contained in these regulations with regard to design of the structural system;

            (ii)            general arrangement of artificial ventilation;

            (iii)            a fire protection plan;

            (iv)            any certificate contemplated in these regulations; and

            (v)            any other particulars:

                        Provided that—

            (aa)            such plans and particulars shall not be submitted where—

            (i)            as a result of any exemption contemplated in paragraph (a) or (b) of the proviso to section 2 (4) of the Act, it is not necessary to do so;

            (ii)            an exemption has been granted by a building control officer in terms of section 13 of the Act, or

            (iii)            any minor building work is a building having an area of not more than 5 m2 or is a pergola, wire fence or an open-sided fabric covered shelter for a car, caravan or boat;

            (bb)            in the case of any temporary building, only such plans and particulars as are contemplated in regulation A23 shall be submitted.

[Subregulation (1) (c) amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

(2)  A certified copy of any approved plans and particulars contemplated in subregulation (1) shall be available at the site where any building is being erected until a certificate of occupancy has been issued by the local authority.

[Subregulation (2) amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

(3)  (a)  Where design work for the proposed erection of any building was commenced and significantly progressed before the date of coming into effect of these regulations and an application in respect of such erection has not been made prior to such date, the owner of the building, or a person authorized by the owner, may notify the local authority that such design work was so commenced and has so progressed.

(b)  Subject to the provisions of this subregulation, an application in respect of an erection which has been the subject of a notification contemplated in paragraph (a) shall, if so requested by the owner, be dealt with by the local authority in accordance with the provisions of the building regulations or by-laws in force immediately before such date.

(c)  Any notification contemplated in paragraph (a) shall—

            (i)            be submitted by registered post within 90 days of the coming into effect of these regulations;

            (ii)            contain the name and address of the owner, the address of the site of the building concerned, the date of commencement of such design work and a description of the proposed erection and its intended use; and

            (iii)            be accompanied by such evidence as may be required by the local authority to satisfy it that such design work was commenced on the date contemplated in subparagraph (ii) and has after that date significantly progressed.

(d)  The local authority shall, in writing, inform the owner concerned whether such notification complies with this subregulation.

(e)  The provisions of paragraph (b) shall not apply in respect of any application which is made to the local authority more than 24 months after the date that the local authority informs the owner that it is so satisfied: Provided that the local authority may extend such period if it thinks it reasonable or necessary.

( f )  Any person who gives false or misleading information in a notification in terms of this subregulation shall be guilty of an offence, and such notification is null and void.

A3.   Preliminary Plans and Enquiries.—(1)  Any person who intends to erect a building may, before submitting an application in accordance with the Act, request the local authority—

            (a)            to examine any preliminary sketch plans of the building proposed to be erected and to furnish, in writing, its comments on such plans or on any particular features thereof specified by such person; or

            (b)            to furnish, in writing, its opinion as to whether any material or method or form of construction intended to be used in the erection of such building will comply with these regulations.

(2)  Where the local authority is unable to comply with any request contemplated in subregulation (1) it shall furnish, in writing, its reasons for its inability to do so.

A4.   Local Authority may Require Additional Documents and Information.—(1)  Where the local authority requires the applicant in terms of regulation A2 (1) ( f ) (i) or (ii) to submit structural details or artificial ventilation details such applicant shall, to the extent required by the local authority—

            (a)            furnish the local authority with a structural arrangement drawing which shall show the position, level and size of every structural member;

            (b)            furnish the local authority with such structural drawings and artificial ventilation details as required in terms of subregulations (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8): Provided that where the structural system or artificial ventilation system, as the case may be, is designed by a professional engineer or other approved competent person—

            (i)            the local authority shall permit the applicant to omit from his application any or all of the details required in subregulations (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) and (8) on condition that the required details shall be submitted to the local authority at least three days, exclusive of a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday, prior to the commencement of the erection of the structural system of the building or the artificial ventilation system, as the case may be; and

            (ii)            such details shall thereafter form part of the relevant application for approval;

            (c)            show on structural drawings the imposed floor loads which such building has been designed to withstand;

            (d)            furnish for inspection the calculations employed in the design of the building proposed to be erected;

            (e)            furnish adequate information regarding the subsoil of the site on which the building is proposed to be erected;

            ( f )            show the fire resistance ratings of the various structural members of the building and, where special protection for such members is necessary, details relating to such protection;

            (g)            furnish information regarding structural materials to be used in the construction of the proposed building, including the grade, strength, classification, temper or treatment;

            (h)            if the design or part thereof has been carried out in accordance with any code of practice contemplated in these regulations, furnish the name and number of such code of practice;

            (i)            if the design or part thereof has been carried out in accordance with a document other than a code of practice contemplated in these regulations, furnish identification of such document together with the reasons for utilizing such document in preference to such code of practice;

            ( j)            if the design or part thereof has not been carried out in accordance with any code of practice or document contemplated in paragraph (h) or (i), furnish the basis and method on which such design was prepared and any further evidence of the adequacy of such basis and method; and

            (k)            if the structural design or part thereof has been carried out in accordance with any code of practice, document or other method contemplated in paragraph (h), (i) or ( j), furnish, in addition to the loads contemplated in paragraph (c), details of other loads which such building has been designed to withstand.

(2)  The documentation for the structural concrete used in a building shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the reinforcement in each member;

            (b)            the various grades of concrete to be used;

            (c)            the type of reinforcement or prestressing tendon;

            (d)            the amount of concrete cover to be provided to the reinforcement;

            (e)            the details of all joints between members; and

            ( f )            the details of anchorage of prestressing steel.

(3)  The documentation for structural steelwork shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the grades of steel of all members;

            (b)            details of connections between members; and

            (c)            details of the corrosion protection to be provided to the steel structure.

(4)  The documentation for structural timber shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the grade and type of timber to be used in such construction;

            (b)            whether the sizes of timber members are nominal or finished sizes;

            (c)            the method of connection of all timber members and the connection of any timber members to a foundation or other parts of the building not constructed of timber;

            (d)            in the case of any roof construction, the details of method of bracing to resist wind forces and other lateral forces, member spacing and sizes and details of connections;

            (e)            details of treatment applied or to be applied in terms of these regulations, to the structural timber members; and

            ( f )            details of drainage for condensation or wind driven water from any cavity and the details of any ventilation openings provided to such cavity.

(5)  The documentation for structural masonry shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the grade of mortar to be used, together with the strength of the masonry units;

            (b)            the details of all joints in masonry and between masonry and other members, including dimensions and materials from which bearing pads and load spreading devices are made; and

            (c)            details of all reinforcement, wall ties and anchors.

(6)  The documentation for foundations shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the type and condition of the soil; and

            (b)            the design loads to be applied to the foundations, except where such foundation is constructed in accordance with any relevant empirical rule and such construction is deemed to satisfy these regulations.

(7)  The documentation for other structural materials shall, to the extent required by the local authority, show—

            (a)            the overall size of every structural member together with its location;

            (b)            the grade of material of all members;

            (c)            the details of all connections between members;

            (d)            the details of the corrosion protection to be provided; and

            (e)            the details of reinforcement provided, including its strength and composition.

(8)  (a)  Where the local authority requires any particulars with regard to the artificial ventilation of any building by a mechanical apparatus not being a room air conditioner contemplated in SABS 1125, or any portable electric fan, the following information shall, to the extent required by the local authority and subject to the requirement of paragraph (b), be submitted:

            (i)            The location and size of any plant room;

            (ii)            the location and size of principal air ducts, plenums, inlets and outlets;

            (iii)            the proposed rates of air supply or extraction; and

            (iv)            details of any water recirculation system, cooling tower and storage tank.

(b)  Any documentation contemplated in paragraph (a) shall be accompanied by a certificate signed by a professional engineer or other approved competent person in which he shall certify that any apparatus to be installed has been designed to provide a standard of ventilation which complies with these regulations.

(9)  (a)  Where a local authority is not satisfied as to the adequacy or safety in use of any construction system, method, material, article or product which is proposed to be used in the erection of any building the local authority may require a test report or evaluation certificate in respect thereof.

(b)  On submission to such local authority of—

            (i)            an applicable report issued by the council or the CSIR; or

            (ii)            any current certificate issued by the Agrément Board of South Africa,

the adequacy or safety of such system, method, material, article or product covered by such report or certificate shall be deemed to satisfy any relevant requirement for adequacy or safety precribed in these regulations, to the extent and under the conditions set out in such report or certificate.

(c)  A report or certificate contemplated in paragraph (a), issued on or after the date of coming into operation of these regulations, shall contain the number of the regulation which prescribes such requirement.

A5.   Application Forms and Materials, Scales and Sizes of Plans.—(1)  Any application form shall be dated and signed in black ink by the owner.

(2)  Any application shall be accompanied by at least one set of plans, drawings and diagrams which shall—

            (a)            be clear and legible;

            (b)            be drawn on white linen, white plastic or other suitable material;

            (c)            contain the name of the owner of the site concerned; and

            (d)            be dated and signed in black ink by the owner; and every subsequent alteration shall be likewise dated and signed.

(3)  Any application shall be accompanied by as many additional paper copies of every plan, drawing or diagram as required by the local authority.

(4)  Such plans, drawings diagrams, and any copies thereof shall be on sheets of the A series of sizes or multiples of A4.

(5)  (a)  Plans, drawings and diagrams shall be drawn to a suitable scale selected from one of the following scales:

            (i)            Site plans: 1:1000, 1:500, 1:300, 1:200 or 1:100.

            (ii)            Plumbing installation drawings: 1:200, 1:100 or 1:50.

            (iii)            Layout drawings; 1:100, 1:50 or 1:20: Provided that in the case of elevations 1:200 may be used.

            (iv)            General structural arrangement drawings and structural details; 1:100, 1:50, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, 1:2 or 1:1.

            (v)            Fire protection plans: 1:200, 1:100, 1:50, or 1:20.

(b)  The local authority may in circumstances deemed exceptional by it, accept a scale not provided for in this subregulation.

(6)  (a)  One copy of the plans and drawings contemplated in subregulation (2) shall, for the convenience of the local authority, be coloured as indicated below: Provided that this requirement shall not apply in the case of any layout, structural or detail drawing of a new building where materials are identified in another suitable manner:

 

Material            Colour

(in plan or section)           

            (i)            New masonry                       Red     

            (ii)            New concrete                       Green  

            (iii)            New iron or steel                  Blue    

            (iv)            New wood               Yellow

            (v)            New glass                 Black  

            (vi)            Existing materials (all material)                       Grey    

            (vii)            All other new materials                       To be clearly indicated in colours other than the above.

 

(b)  Site plans shall be coloured as follows:

 

            (i)            Proposed work                       Red     

            (ii)            Existing work                Not coloured          

            (iii)            Work to be demolished                   Drawn with black dotted lines.     

 

(7)  On one copy of the drainage installation drawing contemplated in regulation A2 (1) (d), the drainage installation shall be coloured in accordance with the following:

 

            (a)            Drains and soil pipes                Brown 

            (b)            Waste pipes                Green  

            (c)            Soil and combined vents                Red     

            (d)            Waste vents                Blue    

            (e)            Pipes for the conveyance of industrial effluent             Orange

            ( f )            Existing drains               Black  

            (g)            Stormwater drains                    Not coloured.         

 

(8)  The escape route drawn on any fire protection plan shall be coloured green and the direction of travel to a safe area shall be indicated by arrows drawn at short intervals along the plan route.

(9)  In all cases the scales employed shall be stated on the plans and drawings, and the letters and symbols used on such plans and drawings shall be not less than 2 mm in size in the case of upper case letters.

A6.   Site Plans.—Any site plan contemplated in regulation A2 (1) (a) shall fully and clearly contain the following information, where applicable:

            (a)            (i)            The dimensions of the site on which the building is to be erected;

            (ii)            the boundaries of such site;

            (iii)            the dimensioned position of any building line; and

            (iv)            the position and width of any servitude or right of way to which such site is subject;

            (b)            the registered number or other designation of such site;

            (c)            the direction of true north, and if required by the local authority, the natural ground contours at suitable vertical intervals or spot levels at each corner of such site;

            (d)            the name of the street upon which such site abuts;

            (e)            the location of—

            (i)            any muninipal service and any connection point thereto; and

            (ii)            any drain, stormwater drain, or surface channel existing upon such site;

            ( f )            the location of—

            (i)            the proposed building;

            (ii)            any existing building; and

            (iii)            any building proposed to be demolished;

            (g)            (i)            any existing and intended point of access from any public street; and

            (ii)            the location of any street tree, street furniture, apparatus or equipment relative to such access.

A7.   Layout Drawing.—Any layout drawing contemplated in regulation A2 (1) (b) shall indicate the occupancy classification, and shall consist of as many plans, sections, elevations and such other details as may be necessary to show—

            (a)            foundations, floors, walls, fixed and openable windows, fanlights, louvres and other ventilating devices, artificial ventilation systems including any cooling tower or plantroom, doors, stairs, roofs and chimneys;

            (b)            sanitary fixtures;

            (c)            structural members required in terms of regulation A4 (1) (a);

            (d)            the intended use and horizontal and vertical dimensions of rooms or other spaces;

            (e)            where fixed seating is provided—

            (i)            the layout of all rows, seats and aisles;

            (ii)            the position of all exit doors; and

            (iii)            the total number of seats;

            ( f )            details of the position, dimensions and materials of damp-proofing;

            (g)            the location, levels and size of any paved areas adjacent to the building;

            (h)            where required by the local authority, contours of the site and the levels of any adjoining verge of any roadway, together with a section along the length of any vehicle driveway, which shall show the relative levels and gradients;

            (i)            where required by the local authority, the levels of the floors relative to one another and to—

            (i)            the existing ground surface;

            (ii)            the proposed finished ground surface;

            (iii)            the surface of any public place or public street at the boundary of the site; and

            (iv)            all street levels supplied in terms of regulation A12;

            ( j)            stormwater drainage on the site, where such drainage is required by the local authority; and

            (k)            details of any special provisions, required in terms of these regulations, for disabled persons.

[Regulation A7 amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

A8.   Plumbing Installation Drawings and Particulars.—(1)  (a)  The provisions of regulation A2 (1) (c) and A2 (1) (d) shall not be construed as preventing the details contemplated in subregulations (2), (3), (4) and (5) being clearly indicated on any layout drawing required in terms of regulation A2 (1) (b).

[Subregulation (1) (a) amended by GN R432 of 1991.]

(b)  Where such details on more than one floor of any building are identical they may be indicated on the drawings of one such floor only: Provided that where such details are so indicated the drawings of other floors concerned shall be suitably annotated to indicate where such details may be found.

(2)  Any drawing of a fire installation as contemplated in regulation A2 (1) (c) shall contain as many plans, sections and elevations as may be necessary to show, where relevant, the following:

            (a)            The location and size of any existing or proposed communication pipe serving or intended to serve any building or site;

            (b)            the location of any pipe, the size of such pipe and the material of which it is manufactured;

            (c)            the location and capacity of any storage tank;

            (d)            the location of any overflow;

            (e)            the location of any pump; and

            ( f )            the pressure for which the installation has been designed.

[Subregulation (2) substituted by GN R432 of 1991.]

(3)  . . . . . .

[Subregulation (3) deleted and succeeding subregulations renumbered by GN R432 of 1991.]

(3)  Any drawing of a drainage installation as contemplated in regulation A2 (1) (d) shall contain as many plans, sections and elevations as may be necessary to show, where relevant, the following:

            (a)            The location, size and gradient of any drain and any connecting point to such drain, in relation to a datum established on the site and the level of the ground relative thereto;

            (b)            the location of any point of access to the interior of any drain;

            (c)            the location of any trapped gully;

            (d)            the location and details of any septic tank, conservancy tank, private sewage treatment plant or sewage pump;

            (e)            the location of any percolation test hole excavated on the site and of any french drain;

            ( f )            the location and arrangement of any sanitary fixture served by the drainage installation;

            (g)            the location and size of any soil pipe, waste pipe and ventilating pipe or device;

            (h)            the location of all openings in the building such as chimneys, skylights, doors, windows, ventilation openings and air intakes which could permit the entry of foul air or gas into such building from any ventilating pipe or device; and

            (i)            the location of any well, borehole or watercourse on the site.

(4)  The local authority may require the owner to submit—

            (a)            drainage design calculations which shall clearly indicate the basis for such design;

            (b)            an estimate of the composition and quantity of any industrial effluent proposed to be discharged into any sewer; and

            (c)            where approval has been given in terms of the local authority’s industrial effluent by-laws or regulations for the discharge into a sewer of industrial effluent from the site, plans and particulars of any drainage works and installations required by the local authority in terms of its conditions of approval for such discharge.

(5)  Where symbols are used to signify details on drainage installation drawings, they shall be as indicated in the following list: Provided that where there may be a possibility of misunderstanding, the description shall be written in full:

 

Access opening                        AO     

Bath                 B         

Bidet                BT      

Cast iron                      CI       

Cleaning eye                 CE      

Concrete                      CONC

Copper                        COP   

Cover level                   CL      

Fibre cement                FC      

Galvanized mild steel                 GMS   

Grease trap                  GT      

Ground level                 GL      

Gully                G        

Inspection chamber                       IC       

Inspection eye              IE        

Invert level                    IL        

Manhole                       MH     

Pitch-impregnated fibre                 PF       

Rainwater pipe             RWP   

Reinforced concrete                       RC      

Rodding eye                 RE      

Shower                        SW     

Sink                 S         

Slop hopper                 SH      

Soil pipe                       SP       

Stainless steel               SS       

Stormwater channel             SC      

Stormwater pipe                  SWP   

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride                        uPVC  

Urinal               U        

Vent or ventilating pipe              VP      

Vitrified clay                 VC      

Wash-basin                  WB     

Wash-trough                WT     

Waste pipe                   WP     

WC pan                       WC     

 

A9.   Fire Protection Plan.—(1)  Where so required by the local authority, any application in respect of the erection of any building not being a dwelling house, shall be accompanied by a fire plan which shall clearly show any fire protection measures provided in terms of these regulations.

(2)  The provisions of subregulation (1) shall not be construed as preventing details of such fire protection measures being clearly indicated on a layout drawing required in terms of regulation A2 (1) (b).

A10.   Symbols on Fire Protection Plans.—Where symbols are used to signify details on fire protection plans they shall be as indicated in the following list: Provided that where the possibility of a misunderstanding exists, the description shall be written in full:

 

Fire extinguisher                   FE       

Fire hydrant                  FH      

Foam inlet                    FI        

Fire main                      FM     

Fire pump connection                    FPC    

Fire stopping                FS       

Heat detectors              HD      

Hose reel                      HR      

Rising main                   RM     

Reflux valve                  RV      

Smoke detectors                      SD      

Sprinkler system              SS       

Smoke extractor                       SX      

Valve               V        

 

A11.   Pointing out of Boundary Beacons.—(1)  Where, in the opinion of the local authority, the location of any boundary of a site has not been accurately determined such local authority may, before granting approval in respect of any application, require the owner, at his own cost, to engage a professional land surveyor and to submit to the local authority a certificate, in an approved form and signed by such professional land surveyor—

            (a)            identifying the boundary pegs or beacons of such site; and

            (b)            stating the name of the nearest cross street and the approximate distance of the nearest boundary of the site from such street.

(2)  Where such owner fails to engage a professional land surveyor as contemplated in subregulation (1) the local authority may engage a professional land surveyor to establish and point out the location of such pegs or beacons, and the local authority may recover such costs of such establishing and pointing out from such owner.

A12.   Street Levels.—(1)  Where any building is to be erected on a site abutting a constructed street the owner of such building shall, subject to the requirements of subregulation (3), erect such building in accordance with the levels of such street.

(2)  (a)  Where any portion of any street abutting the site on which any building is to be erected has not been constructed the owner of such building shall request, in writing, from the local authority the levels at which such portion of the street is intended to be constructed.

(b)  The local authority shall, where in its opinion it is practicable for it so to do and within 21 days after receipt of a request contemplated in paragraph (a), supply the required levels.

(c)  If the local authority is unable to comply with the provisions of paragraph (b) it shall notify such owner, in writing, to that effect.

(3)  Where any street has been constructed, but in the opinion of the local authority is likely to be reconstructed at levels different from its existing levels, the local authority shall give notice of such fact to such owner, and in such notice it shall, if possible, supply the levels at which such portion of such street will be reconstructed.

A13.   Building Materials and Tests.—(1)  (a)  Material used in the erection of a building shall be of a quality adequate for the purpose for which it is to be used.

(b)  All timber shall be treated against termite and wood borer attack and fungal decay, and treatment shall be in accordance with a recognized method and the local authority may require proof of such treatment; and

[Reg. A13 amended by GN R919 of 1999.]

(c)  the requirements of subregulation (1) (a) and (1) (b) shall be deemed to be satisfied if—

            (i)            such material complies with the standard prescribed for it in the relevant standard specification, or

            (ii)            such treatment is in accordance with SABS 05, as the case may be.

(2)  The local authority may test or cause to be tested any material or component used or to be used in the erection of any building in order to determine whether such material or component complies with the requirements of these regulations, and any officer of such local authority duly authorized for that purpose may, at any time after consultation with the person erecting such building, remove from the building site concerned so much of such material or component as is reasonably necessary to serve as a sample for the purpose of such test: Provided that the authorized officer may not exercise his powers in such a way that work of such erection is stopped when such material or component is being so removed and tested.

(3)  If any material or component tested in terms of subregulation (2) does not comply with these regulations the local authority may serve a notice on such person, stating the respects in which such material or component does not comply and prohibiting such person from making further use of such material or component for the purpose for which it was or is to be used in the erection of such building.

(4)  Except in the case where in such notice the local authority permits the use of such material or component in the erection of such building for some different purpose permitted in terms of these regulations, such person shall forthwith on receipt of such notice remove such material or component from such building or building site or from both, as the case may be.

(5)  If any material or component contemplated in subregulation (2) is tested and has failed to comply with these regulations the local authority may recover the cost of such test from the owner of the building concerned.

(6)  Where the owner of any building desires to use for a particular purpose any material or component which is not permitted or prescribed by these regulations to be used for that purpose, and he satisfies the local authority that such material or component is at least as suitable for that purpose as the material or component permitted or prescribed to be used by these regulations, then the local authority shall permit the use of such material or component for the purpose concerned.

A14.   Construction.—(1)  Where construction of any building or element of a building is carried out in compliance with the requirements of any relevant code of practice, such construction shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of these regulations in respect of construction methods and workmanship.

(2)  All workmanship in the erection of any building shall be in accordance with sound building practice.

(3)  Any building, including any structural element or component thereof, shall be constructed so as to comply with the design requirements of Part B of these regulations.

(4)  Where any code of practice or document has been used as a basis for the design of any building, any construction procedure described in such code or document shall be observed in the erection of such building.

(5)  Precautions shall be taken during all stages of construction of any building to ensure that the structural system is not damaged or distorted during the course of erection of such building.

A15.   Installations Maintenance and Operation.—(1)  The owner of any building shall ensure that any mechanical equipment or any service installation provided in or in connection with such building, pursuant to these regulations or pursuant to any building by-law which was in operation prior to the coming into operation of the Act, shall be maintained in a safe condition.

(2)  Such owner or any person appointed by such owner to be in control of such building shall ensure that where such equipment or installation is designed to be kept operating during the times of normal occupancy of the building it is kept operating in such a manner as to attain any standard of performance prescribed in these regulations or in any by-law contemplated in subregulation (1) for such equipment or installation.

(3)  The local authority may serve a notice on such owner or person requiring him to comply with subregulation (1) or (2) within the time specified in such notice.

(4)  The local authority may, by notice, in writing to the owner, order the evacuation of such building where the state of such equipment or installation will cause conditions which in the opinion of the local authority may be detrimental to the safety or health of the occupiers or users of such building.

(5)  Any owner or person who contravenes the requirements of subregulation (1) or (2) or fails to comply with any notice served in terms of subregulation (3) or (4) shall be guilty of an offence.

A16.   Qualifications of a Building Control Officer.—The minimum qualification of any building control officer appointed in terms of section 5 of the Act shall be of a standard equivalent to a senior certificate plus three years tertiary education, as evaluated by the Human Sciences Research Council, in one of the following building disciplines:

            (a)            Civil engineering;

            (b)            structural engineering;

            (c)            architecture;

            (d)            building management;

            (e)            building science;

            ( f )            building surveying; or

            (g)            quantity surveying.

A17.   Certificate of Identity of a Building Control Officer.—(1)  Any building control officer or any officer contemplated in section 6 (4) of the Act shall, when so requested, produce his certificate of identity, which shall contain the following information:

            (a)            The number of the Act in terms of which the certificate is issued;

            (b)            the name of the local authority in question;

            (c)            the name of the officer;

            (d)            the signature of the officer;

            (e)            the signature of the Town Clerk or Secretary of the local authority concerned;

            ( f )            the date of issue; and

            (g)            a photograph of the officer.

(2)  Subregulation (1) shall be deemed to be satisfied where the certificate is of the form shown in the illustration in Appendix 1 to SABS 0400.

(3)  The certificate contemplated in subregulation (1) shall be valid only during the period that the officer so identified occupies the post of building control officer or during the period for which any power of a building control officer is delegated to him, as the case may be, and it may at any time be withdrawn by the local authority.

(4)  Any person who produces a certificate of identity which has not been lawfully issued to him or which has been lawfully withdrawn, shall be guilty of an offence.

A18.   Control of Plumbers and Plumbing Work.—(1)  No person shall perform the trade of plumbing as contemplated in Government Notice No. R. 1875 of 31 August 1979 unless he is a trained plumber or works under the adequate control of a trained plumber or approved competent person.

(2)  Where any person who is not a trained plumber has been practising the trade of plumbing and was required in terms of any local authority by-law to register with it before so practising in its area of jurisdiction, he may, if he is so registered, continue to practise in such area or the area of any other local authority if such registration is acceptable to such other local authority.

(3)  No local authority shall, for the purposes of these regulations, register any person to practise the trade of plumbing after the coming into operation of the Act.

(4)  Any person not being a trained plumber or not being a person contemplated in subregulation (2), who practises the trade of plumbing shall be guilty of an offence.

(5)  Any trained plumber who causes or permits any person who is not a trained plumber or is not a person contemplated in subregulation (2), to practise the trade of plumbing without adequately controlling the work done by such person, shall be guilty of an offence.

A19.   Appointment of Persons Responsible for Design.—(1)  Where in terms of these regulations a rational design for—

            (a)            precautionary measures necessary to ensure the stability of an excavation and of any adjoining property, building, service or street;

            (b)            the structural system of the building;

            (c)            any artificial ventilation system;

            (d)            any drainage installation;

            (e)            any stormwater disposal system;

            ( f )            any fire protection system;

            (g)            . . . . . 

[Para (g) deleted by GN R432 of 1991.]

is to be submitted to the local authority, the owner of any building shall, except where not so required by the local authority, appoint and retain any person who is a professional engineer or other approved competent person to undertake responsibility for each such design, and also for inspection, during construction, of such precautionary measures, structural system, artificial ventilation system, drainage installation, stormwater disposal system, fire protection system, or water supply system, as the case may be.

(2)  Where it is not possible for such person to fulfil his duties as contemplated in subregulation (1), the owner of such building shall appoint some other such person to fulfil such duties.

(3)  Such owner shall inform the local authority of the appointment of any person contemplated in subregulation (1) or (2) and shall furnish to such local authority the name and address of such person, a full list of his academic and professional qualifications, evidence of relevant experience and proof of his acceptance of such appointment.

(4)  Where so required by the local authority the information contemplated in subregulation (3) shall be on an approved form.

(5)  Subregulation (4) shall be deemed to be satisfied where the required information is contained on a form of the type illustrated in Appendix 1 of SABS 0400.

A20.   Classification and Designation of Occupancies.—(1)  The occupancy of any building shall be classified and designated according to the appropriate occupancy class given in column 1 of Table 1 and such classification shall reflect the primary function of such building: Provided that, in any building divided into two or more areas not having the same primary function, the occupancy of each such area shall be separately classified.

(2)  Notwithstanding the requirements of subregulation (1), any area in any building which is used for any purpose ancillary to that of any occupancy classification contemplated in subregulation (1) shall, subject to adequate facilities and safety measures being provided, not be classified as a separate occupancy.

(3)  Any room or space used for the storage or processing of flammable liquids shall not be deemed to be a J1 occupancy as herein defined if—

            (a)            such liquid is stored in the fuel tank of any engine, motor vehicle, boat or lawnmower;

            (b)            the quantity of liquid to be stored or handled in such room does not exceed 40 litres; or

            (c)            the quantity contemplated in paragraph (b) exceeds 40 litres but does not exceed 200 litres and the closed cup flash point of such liquid is above 40°C.

Table 1—Occupancy or Building Classification

 

1          2         

Class of occupancy of building

Occupancy      

A1            Entertainment and public assembly           

            Occupancy where persons gather to eat, drink, dance or participate in other recreation.       

A2            Theatrical and indoor sport   

            Occupancy where persons gather for the viewing of theatrical, operatic, orchestral, choral, cinematographical or sport performances.  

A3       Places of instruction    

            Occupancy where school children, students or other persons assemble for the purpose of tuition or learning.           

A4            Worship         

            Occupancy where persons assemble for the purpose of worshipping.    

A5            Outdoor sport 

            Occupancy where persons view outdoor sports events. 

B1        High risk commercial service 

            Occupancy where a non-industrial process is carried out and where either the material handled or the process carried out is liable, in the event of fire, to cause combustion with extreme rapidity or give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

B2            Moderate risk commercial service 

            Occupancy where a non-industrial process is carried out and where either the material handled or the process carried out is liable in the event of fire, to cause combustion with moderate rapidity but is not likely to give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

B3        Low risk commercial service 

            Occupancy where a non-industrial process is carried out and where neither the material handled nor the process carried out falls into the high or moderate risk category.         

C1            Exhibition hall 

            Occupancy where goods are displayed primarily for viewing by the public. 

C2            Museum        

            Occupancy comprising a museum, art gallery or library. 

D1       High risk industrial   

            Occupancy where an industrial process is carried out and where either the material handled or the process carried out is liable, in the event of fire, to cause combustion with extreme rapidity or give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

D2            Moderate risk industrial          

            Occupancy where an industrial process is carried out and where either the material handled or the process carried out is liable, in the event of fire, to cause combustion with moderate rapidity but is not likely to give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

D3       Low risk industrial   

            Occupancy where an industrial process is carried out and where neither the material handled nor the process carried out falls into the high or moderate risk category.         

D4       Plant room   

            Occupancy comprising usually unattended mechanical or electrical services necessary for the running of a building.           

E1        Place of detention     

            Occupancy where people are detained for punitive or corrective reasons or because of their mental condition.        

E2            Hospital          

            Occupancy where people are cared for or treated because of physical or mental disabilities and where they are generally bed-ridden. 

E3        Other institutional (residential)      

            Occupancy where groups of people who either are not fully fit, or who are restricted in their movements or their ability to make decisions, reside and are cared for.        

F1        Large shop    

            Occupancy where merchandise is displayed and offered for sale to the public and the floor area exceeds 250 m2.          

F2        Small shop    

            Occupancy where merchandise is displayed and offered for sale to the public and the floor area does not exceed 250 m2.     

F3            Wholesalers’ store      

            Occupancy where goods are displayed and stored and where only a limited selected group of persons is present at any one time.         

G1       Offices

            Occupancy comprising offices, banks, consulting rooms and other similar usage.  

H1       Hotel   

            Occupancy where persons rent furnished rooms, not being dwelling units.   

H2            Dormitory      

            Occupancy where groups of people are accommodated in one room.    

H3            Domestic residence     

            Occupancy consisting of two or more dwelling units on a single site.

H4            Dwelling house

            Occupancy consisting of a dwelling, units on its own site, including a garage and other domestic outbuildings, if any.     

J1         High risk storage      

            Occupancy where material is stored and where the stored material is liable, in the event of fire, to cause combustion with extreme rapidity or give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

J2            Moderate risk storage

            Occupancy where material is stored and where the stored material is liable, in the event of fire, to cause combustion with moderate rapidity but is not likely to give rise to poisonous fumes, or cause explosions.      

J3         Low risk storage      

            Occupancy where the material stored does not fall into the high or moderate risk category.         

J4         Parking garage 

            Occupancy used for storing or parking of more than 10 motor vehicles.          

 

A21.   Population.—(1)  The population of any room or storey or portion thereof shall be taken as the actual population of such room, storey or portion thereof where such population is known or, where such population is not known, the population shall be calculated from the criteria given in Table 2.

(2)  In the case of any occupancy classified as F1, where the total floor area is more than 500 m2, that portion of the floor area that is in excess of 500 m2 shall, for the purposes of calculation of the population be reduced by an amount of 20%.

TABLE 2—DESIGN POPULATION

 

1          2         

Class of occupancy of

room or storey or

portion thereof 

Population       

A1, A2, A4, A5                   Number of fixed seats or 1 person per m2 if there are no fixed seats   

E1, E3, H1, H3                        2 persons per bedroom         

G1                   1 person per 15 m2      

J1, J2, J3, J4                1 person per 50 m2      

C1, E2, F1, F2             1 person per 10 m2      

B1, B2, B3, D1, D2, D3                  1 person per 15 m2      

C2, F3             1 person per 20 m2      

A3, H2             1 person per 5 m2      

 

[Table 2 substituted by GN R432 of 1991.]

A22.   Notice of Intention to Commence Erection or Demolition of a Building, and Notices of Inspection.—(1)  (a)  No work in connection with the erection or demolition of any building shall be commenced on the site unless notice, in the form required by the local authority, has been given to such local authority by the owner of such building, stating the date on which such erection or demolition will commence.

(b)  Such notice shall in the case of the erection of a building be given at least four days, exclusive of a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday, and in the case of the demolition of a building at least 10 days, exclusive of a Saturday, Sunday or public holi